Who discovered Australia and in what year. Cook James and other navigators. Mainland visits, history

Who and when he opened the penultimate continent on the planet, still remains Discussion issue - for the British, this is James Cook, for Dutch - Willem Janzzon. And there are also Spaniards, Portuguese and French. Unusually long-term isolation of the mainland, makes Australia a unique world.

The continent of Australia arose about 50 million years ago, when he broke off from Antarctica. The first people appeared here during the ice age - 50 thousand years ago. And although European navigators visited Australia several times during large geographical discoveries, the first British colony emerged here only in 1788.

The first people of Australia

Local aborigines are covered by the secret secret of Australia, which are trying to solve anthropologists, genetics and archaeologists. Scientists found that people on the mainland appeared during the ocean weeding. That's the way, Australian ancestors, gatherers from Africa, could not only cross Asia, but also adapt to the movement between the islands on primitive dams in Indonesia.

50 thousand years ago, twisting the aquatic space between South East Asia and Australia, the coaching tribes contributed to the glaciation. Because of the global temperature change, the water level in the ocean then fell by 120 m. This meant that the African tribes had to sail only 100 km of water space, instead of the estimated 560 km.

Also, scientists have reached the conclusions that African tribes carried out only one wave of migration to the continent, and never returned to East South Asia. In such isolated conditions, a small number of arrived tribes could not only save the gene pool and survive, but also to increase their quantity.

When the British were actively studied in the XVIII-XIX centuries Australia, naturalists suggested that the number of aborigines in Australia is approximated to 1 million

But despite the impressive demography, it is considered About 12 thousandYears ago, in time the last wave of glaciation, the climate of Australia turned from violent forests into a arid desert. This was the reason why a significant amount, about 60%, local aborigines extinct in search of drinking water.

Also the disappearance of ideal conditions for life, contributed to the division of large tribes into small tribal groups. That is how the diverse world of Australian Aborigines has been formed, which preserved resistant cultural and trading and barter connections before joining the mainland of Europeans.

The last changes in the gene pool of local aborigines occurred about 12 thousand years ago - when the glacier retreated, and the water level in the ocean Began rise, the last geological change in Australia occurred. Increased water level in the ocean separated the modern Island of Tasmania from Australia, and this is the most insulated part of the island tribes from the continent forever.

Language diversity arose. Despite the relatively small number of aborigines, there was the greatest cultural diversity - residents of Australia talked to 500 languages, which linguists were divided into 31 linguistic family.

Today, half of these languages ​​is lost unexplored. Scientists suggest that about 250 peoples lived in Australia.


Who was in Australia to Europeans

The history of Australia is very popular not only among archaeologists and anthropologists. Of particular attention to the study of the historical and cultural heritage of the most isolated mainland also show genetics and environmentalists. The most inexplicable hypotheses about the opening of Australia are attributed to the Egyptians.

and all because some pharaohs were concerned in eucalyptus oil, and on some caves in Australia, scarab drawings are depicted. The presence of scarab patterns can be explained by the fact that it is people from Africa who came to the continent of 50 thousand years ago. What is also possible - they retained the cathematic belief, which brought with them from far homeland.

The most favorable conditions for the arrivals of African tribes were found on the west coast of the mainland in the Valley of the Murray River and near Lake Mungo. It is there, anthropologists found the remains of a skeleton of a person who is now about 42 thousand years old. According to found residues, archaeologists may argue that the aborigines had a massive and large structure of the body.

Most of the skeletons of the modern anthropological sample belong to Australia to the period of about 4 thousand years ago.

Later, in the habitat of Lake Mungo, archaeologists also fought the oldest archaeological items of human activity. It is surprising that these tribes used ocher - vegetable pollen, which was part of the symbolic rituals in Africa.

In surprise to modern researchers, Australian aborigines managed to maintain their genome and not extort from the heighter. This was facilitated by their division into small tribal groups, between which contacts regularly took place.

Also these tribes managed to create not only the only sociocultural environment, but also persistent trading ties that were very important to maintain the existence of whole tribes. Unfortunately, this network was destroyed by the process of colonization of the mainland by Europeans - Aborigines have lost not only thousand-year cultural habits, they were forcibly rearranged and unions.

Australian culture remains poorly studied. The situation is trying to save modern genetics, which compares the genomes of the skeletons found and living aborigines. Based on their results, scientists want to recreate the development of cultural processes.

Europeans visiting the green continent

Opening by Europeans of this continent - this is the result of the global process of the great geographical discoveries of the XV-XVIII century. At the beginning of the new time, the strongest European states with an impressive fleet - Spain, Portugal and Holland - actively searched for new land with fossils. Only then, at the end of the XVII Art. Britain and France joined this Trinity.

There are several versions, who all the same opened Australia. This process took place gradually.

There are hypotheses and the fact that the first ones were hit by Portuguese. But it has not yet been able to confirm documented. Then, almost at the same time, during travel, the North Coast of Australia was seen by the Spanish and Dutch flotilla. Accordingly, each manual kept opening secret.

The Dutch was actively studied by the mainland for 2 centuries. The first one who opened Australia was Willem Yanszon, in 1606 after it took place a series of Dutch expeditions to the shores of Australia. Although they did not particularly succeed here, since after each return, the land "New Holland" was designated the poorest mainland.

The deposits of gold, diamonds and other precious fossils were found by the British only in the middle of the XIX century.

Then, almost honored after 2 centuries, the British sailed here with a specific goal - to proclaim these lands with British property and establish a colony. In 1788, in the Botani Bay, the first colony was founded here, in which the English prisoners were exported. The emergence of the first settlements was the beginning of a more thorough study of the nature of Australia, especially deep into the continent.

It is important that the appearance of Europeans here was the beginning of a decrease in the number of natives. Skirmishes for survival constantly lasted between the colonialists and the natives. But also, representatives of local cultures turned out to be weakly resistant to the various diseases brought in - the isolated genome and, accordingly, the immunity of the natives was unsuitable for fighting unknown viruses.

The demographic change in Australia also occurred when not only the dregs of British society began to sail here, but also those who wanted to farm and those who had contracted the "gold rush" of the 19th century. So, in Australia, a local system of government was established, and representative bodies of power - parliaments - began to be created.

A few decades later, in 1901, the local colonists held a referendum and proclaimed the creation of a federation. From that moment on, British and Australian histories became separate, although the connection with the former mother country has not been lost to this day. For example, in Australia, the head of state is the British Queen Elizabeth. Although her power today is only symbolic, and does not manifest itself in any way.

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The official history of the discovery of Australia

Assumptions about the existence of Australia were voiced by ancient philosophers. Then, in v. 5, Ptolemy suggested that in order to balance the planet, there must be land somewhere. This idea came to life again during the active great geographical discoveries, when European countries were looking for new lands with gold.

In 1565, the Spanish monk André de Urdaneta proposed that a Southern continent must exist in the waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west of South America. During the first round-the-world trip of Magellan in 1519-1522. these lands were already called by cartographers "the unknown southern land". Terra Australis Incognita.

In 1606, for the first time, the Portuguese navigator Pedro Ferdinand de Quiros mistakenly thought that he had discovered the same new continent, and called it Austrialia de Espiritu Santo. Wanting to get the glory of the second Columbus, he abandoned half the flotilla and headed for the royal court. But it turned out to be not the cherished Australia, the New Hebrides archipelago, 83 islands, to the east of Australia.

But his subordinate Torres then sailed further and really discovered the northern coast of Australia and the southern coast of New Guinea. But the official opening of the mainland took place in 1772, when James Cook proclaimed these lands a new British colony. Although the Dutch navigators have already visited this mainland several times for 163 years, they kept his discovery secret.

Despite the proclamation of the British authorities in Australia, the operation of the mainland began only after 16 years, and not in the most positive paints - then, in 1788 Here brought English prisoners and prostitutes, which were caught on the streets of London. It is believed that if the villains were brought to Australia, the most dangerous was exported even further - to the island of Tasmania.

Practically, only after 100 years, the local infrastructure has been equipped, the beginning of the farming began to develop, and gold deposits were found on the mainland. This provoked the flow of not only those who wish to do agriculture, but also the golden dew.

More than 2 centuries, before the start of the active metabolism, the Europeans made several very important expeditions to the banks of Australia. Then their main goal was to study by naturalists and artists of an unknown nature - vegetable and animal world, and rarely - attempts to establish contacts with aborigines.

The most important expeditions were headed by such captains:

Expedition Year
(Portugal)20th. 16 tbsp.
Louis Vaes de Torres (Spain)1606
Willle Yanszon (Holland)1606
Derk Hartog (Holland)1616
Frederick de Hutwoman (Holland)1619
Abel Tasman (Holland)1642, 1644
Villem de Murenc (Holland)1696
William Dampier (Britain)1699
James Cook (Britain)1772, 1774
Jean Francois Laperuz (France)1788
George Bass (Britain)1797
Meat Flinders (Britain)1801

of expedition to Australia: history, description

Opening of Australia - this is the result of the events important for humanity related to great geographical discoveries and colonization of overseas territories around the world.

Modern discussions on the importance of many expeditions to the shores of Australia are not stopped today. Each of them made important discoveries associated with Nature not only Australia, but also Oceania. But the collective experience of past centuries became accessible to all now, and then, each European country in strict secret tried to understand what to do with new territories.

Expedition Kristovan de Mendons

Despite the fact that it was not yet possible to document the championship of Portuguese navigators in the opening of Australia, such a hypothesis deserves its right to exist. Opened Australia for the first time Portuguese navigator Kristovan de Mendoza.

On time the next search for lands with gold, he stumbled upon the West Coast of Australia, which then designated on his maps. This is confirmed by archaeological finds on the seashore - 2 Portuguese bronze powders of production of the beginning of the XVI Art. It is assumed that they appeared here during one of the sea expeditions of the Portuguese at Molukskie Islands in 1509.

The Expedition of Louis Waesa de Torres

in the midst of the search for new colonial lands, the Spanish navigator Luis Torres became officially The first who recorded the north bank in the unknown then land. In 1605, he announced the opening of new territories of the Royal Governor in the Philippines.

Since Spain did not then have funds to study this mainland, the discovery decided to keep secret to the best times, which for the Spaniards never came.

This discovery coincided in time with the fall of the power of the Spanish monarchy, so to study new lands and to assign their Spanish themselves.

Later, almost two centuries this very northern point of the mainland, James Cook will call Cape York. Only with time the aqueous space for which Louis Torres sailed will be called in his honor - Torres Strait.

opened Australia officially the first to do Torres, but he was not destined to announce this because of which his glory was rushed into the forgotten. He became the first one who went further on Southeast Asia and opened the shores of New Guinea and Australia.

The expedition of the Yanzzon Villem

almost at the same time with the Spaniards, the Dutch sailed to the shores of Australia. Only unlike Spain, Holland in the XVII century was a strong marine country, often leading in terms of the number of opening new territories.

Therefore, since 1606, Holland carried out how important, but secret, expeditions to study the unknown southern continent, which they called "New Holland". opened Australia Dutchman Willem Yanszon, he landed on a new shore at 400 km west of Spaniards, where he explored along with the crew of 26 sailors the coast of 320 km.


then he decided that these lands were part of New Guinea. Later it became clear that Janzzon explored the length of the Bay of Karpenary and got to the Cape York Peninsula. Despite the actual mistakes, the Dutch also recorded new latitudes on their marine maps, and later, the Netherlands East Indian campaign began to actively study new lands, holding them secretly.

Expedition Jan Kistenex

In 1623, Jan Carswens and Villa Will Kraster studying the shores of New Guinea and Cape Vale, also headed to the east, to the lands of the Open Yanson - to Zeytland. But when they got to the Australian coast, according to unknown reasons, Villa Villia, Villia Coltter, Selfly left Yana Kartenza in a different direction.

opened Yang Kartens also the map errors of the Yanszon. Then Australia and New Guinea on marine maps were denoted as a unified territory. After the expedition, Jan Carstens, the water space between Arnhemland and Cape York began to be called carpenter.

and in time of searching for fresh water, his team has advanced much south than his predecessor did - to the modern Gilbert River. Having studied local nature, and faced with the aborigines, Jan Kartens then made a conclusion - this is the most barren shore that has seen his team. During the study of the coast, they captured one aborigine, which then showed everyone.

The expedition of Abel Tasmann

opened Australia from the south side of the mainland another Dutch navigator - Abel Tasman. In total, he managed to implement 2 expeditions in this region. The first of which was called the "brilliant failure", as Tasman managed to open a lot of Oceania Islands, but not to see the Australian itself - he managed to sailing around the mainland on a completely distant distance to not see him.

In 1642, Tasman first opened the island of Tasmania (he himself called his vandimenal land in honor of his patron from the Ost-Indian campaign), and then New Zealand, Fiji and many other small islands. During the second expedition in 1644, Tasman has already landed in the north of Australia.

His first expedition became a record - no one had swam so far to the south. Also, in 1642, he managed to hide the mainland of Australia around. Therefore, then, after his second expedition, Tasman will not only call these lands of New Holland, but also can say that this is a single array of the Earth.

in 1644When Tasman still landed in Australia, he had important tasks from the Netherlands East Indian Campaign:

  • Examine the Flora and Fauna of the North-Eastern Coast;
  • explore the landscape and embankment line;
  • Find minerals;
  • Install trade contacts with local tribes.

But the mission turned out to be unsuccessful - trade did not start, gold was not found. The conclusion of Jan Kartens was confirmed - this is a very poor mainland. Dutch for a long time lost interest in the lands of New Holland

Expedition James Cook

discovered according to the official history of Australia British navigator James Cook. The appearance of the interest of the British monarchy to the southern waters is planted by the result of a seven-year war with Spain. Then Britain, who swallowed the secret archive, found the record of Luis Torres, and learned about the existence of southern mainland.

The first British expedition to the banks of Australia implemented William Dumpier in 1699. He studied the extensive Western Bay, which was listed in the Spanish archives, also Captain Dumpier opened the Melanesian Island of New Britain (the modern part of Papua New Guinea). [217)

But only in 1770, the second British flotilla was sent, headed by James Cup, to establish a new colony of the British monarchy.

An important astronomical event was called the official reason for this expedition - observation of the rarest movement of heavenly bodies - the passage of Venus through the drive of the Sun, which European astronomers and naturalists had to watch the island of Haiti. The team of the only ship "Indenevory" took the course to Tahiti, and only later - to Terra Austlis Incognita - Unknown South Earth.

So, on April 19, 1770, the British fleet stopped in Botani Bay, where the local flora and fauna was studied. Next, studying the eastern coast, the ship fell on the big barrier reef and was damaged. James Cook explored the Eastern and Northeast Coast of Australia, called the new British colony with the new South Wales.

After a long-term repair, when the team returned to their homeland, the official opening of the mainland took place. On August 20, 1770, James Cook proclaimed a new land with the possessions of Great Britain. Cook did not find on the mainland of fresh water, so in his report described these land unsuitable for life. But in 1786, the British authorities still decided to start the colonization of the land open.

and in 1788 to Australia, in the bay of botani, 11 British squadrons with 778 prisoners arrived on board. And then it turned out - fresh water here was still.

Australia was discovered for the last time by the French captain Jean Francois La Perouse in January 1788. But his team was only a few days late before the British prisoners were brought here. Therefore, the study of the new mainland by the French turned out to be a record short.

Article design: Oleg Lozinsky

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