The highest mountains in Europe. Photos, where you are, features, facts

The highest European peaks are located in large mountain systems: the Alps and the Caucasian Mountains. Some of them partially run in Russia.

Pennic Alps are the longest and high mountain range in the continent. It runs through 8 European countries, among which France and Switzerland. Russian Dykhtau, Schhara, Elbrus and Bazarduzu are listed as part of the Caucasian Mountains. They are higher than alpine and are located in Russia and 5 more countries.

Geographers were not decided with what to attract Caucasian Mountains: to Europe or Asia. At the first approach of the highest mountain point in Europe, the mountain volcano Elbrus is considered with a height of 5642 m. If you consider the Caucasian Mountains part of Asia, the status moves to Alpine Mont Blanc, whose height has 4810 m.

Bazarduzyu

(36]) The highest mountains in Europe include the Russian Mountain Basradzyu. She is the most southernmost point of the country. Bazarduzu refers to the waterproof ridge and is his peak. The southern part of the mountain is located in Dagestan, and North - in Azerbaijan. Its absolute height - 4466 m.

For the first time, the peak conquest occurred in the spring of 1849 - Sergey Alexandrov, who served as part of the Russian troops was climbed from the northeast. In 1952, the climber Henry Anhin climbed at night.

Numerous rivers flow on the mountain. For the last century, 8 major glaciers went down from the top - at present, the area of ​​glaciation occupies 4 square meters. km. At the moment, 2 large glaciers are located on the slope of the top of the mountain: Murcar and

Tichcir

on the picturesque alpine meadows captured in many photos, from April and before the beginning of the autumn grazing the herd of sheep and goats with many thousands Livestock. Among wild animals: Tours, roasted, sulfur, mountain turkey.

Interesting fact: the name "Bazarduzu" is translated as "turn to the bazaar" or "Market Square". In the Middle Ages, large-scale fairs were held in the nearby Plain, Shakhnabad were conducted, where merchants of different nations moved. Mount Bazarduyu was for them a guideline when looking for a destination.

Matterhorn

Mountain is located in the Alps, at the Swiss-Italian border. Its height is 4478 m. Matterhorn looks like a deformed pyramid, closer to the peak of her slope becomes almost vertical.

In the XVIII century, the Geological Council admitted that the conquest of this vertex is impossible. In 1865, a group of European climbers successfully climbed to the top, but four of them died with a subsequent descent. The conquest of Matterhorn marked the end of the "golden century of mountaineering" - up to this point, Matterhorn was the only revolving top of the Alps, whose height accounted for more than 4 km.

Throughout the slope, the weather changes dramatically. It is characterized by a thick fog, dark clouds, storms, thunder, snowfall. Often soundpads occur. At the top of Matterhorn even in the summer there is a minus temperature and a constant snow cover.

Matterhorn received the nickname "Mountain Killer" - every year several people die every year. Over the past 30 years, the victims have become 223 climbers, most of which broke in the fall.

The mountain has 2 peaks, the distance between which is less than 100 m. Between them passes between Italy and Switzerland. The first country belongs to 1 slope, the second - the remaining 3.

an interesting fact: "Matterhorn" is an unofficial symbol of Switzerland. The packaging of the world-famous chocolate "TOBLERONE" decorates the image of this particular mountain.

Weischron

is an alpine peak on the territory of Switzerland. Height - 4506 m. Weischron is part of the mountain range. She also has the shape of the pyramid, but unlike Matterhorn, not with 4 faces, and with 3. Weisshorn is the seventh height of the mountain Alps.

For the first time, the top was mastered in 1861 among the conquers were a physicist John Tyndle and 2 of his conductor. Now their route is most used among modern climbers.

The first top was mastered in 1861. Among the conquerors were a physicist John Tyndle and 2 of his conductor.

There are 4 major glaciers on the mountain: Bis, Moving, Weishorn, Turtmann. During the year, the air temperature is kept below zero. Exception - Summer month during the daytime, when the temperature rises to 5 degrees.

The landslides on Weishorn - a rare phenomenon, however, 1 of them in the spring of 1991 destroyed large automobile and railways, making damage to the infrastructure of the region and the state budget.

After this event, Switzerland organized a special scientific department engaged in learning the causes of such a catastrophe. As a result, many scientific works were written on the basis of which research in other countries.

Liskamm

Another peak of Penninsky Alps, which shares Switzerland and Italy. Its height is 4527 m. Liskovamm - a long-term ridge with a length of 5 km, on which two peaks can be seen.

From the north of the lectured - this is a wall of 1.1 km long, completely covered with ice. For the mountain, frequent avalanches are characteristic that people live. Currently, leisons are considered difficult to climb the vertex, which is not suitable for lovers climbers. A favorable time for the implementation of the route is July and August.

For the first time, the mountain was conquered on the Eastern Range, in August 1891 by a group of 14 climbers. As part of the 8 climbers from England and 6 local conductors. Prior to that, attempts were made to conquer the vertices, but everyone was unsuccessful, although they did not bring human victims.

House

Complete title of the vertex: DE Mishabel's house. The mountain has a height of 4545 m and is located in the Penni Alps, Switzerland. The highest point of the mountain range is Strachorn-Mishabel. The house lies outside the main alpine mountain range. It is surrounded by 2 rivers flowing through the sides, which fall into the Ron River. This is the highest mountain, fully positioned in Switzerland.

The peak has 5 ridges. His name Dé Mishabel acquired from behind a winding relief with small peaks. On the Staronesec dialect, the name denotes "forks"

For the first time, climbing was recorded in September 1858. He was committed by George Davis and 3 Swiss conductors. After 20 years, an expedition out of 7 people rose on the opposite Western ridge on the opposite western ridge.

Dufur

Dufur is the highest mountain on the territory of Switzerland - 4634 m. Unlike the mountain, Dufour is not completely in the country, and therefore is not considered the highest vertex in the state. It is listed as part of an array of Monte Rosa, located on the border of Italy and Switzerland.

Charles Hudson, His 4 satellites and 3 Swiss guide, rose on the mountain. This happened in August 1855. Charles Hudson himself later became a member of the climbing group who conquered Matternhorn, but died at the descent.

Dufur peak has the highest glaciation among the Swiss Alps. It contains many mountain huts designed to rest tourists. The surface is covered with coniferous frost-resistant trees and green meadows from alpine plants.

Do not miss the most popular article heading: Belbek canyon is a unique monument of nature.

Mont Blanc

The highest mountains in Europe (in the European Union) is headed by Mont Blanc. This system, which consists of several vertices. The highest name is the same name, its absolute height is 4810 m. It has a nickname "Roof of Europe".

The lowest vertex - the Egyi de midi in 3842 m. It is in the Alps, at the junction of France and Italy. It is recognized as the largest European center of mountaineering and mountain tourism - several ski resorts are equipped on Mont Blanc.

The mountain is equipped with cable cars and lifts, hotels, restaurants, professional shops, camping. There are also reserves, archaeological museums, exhibitions, botanical garden.

The mountain is almost completely covered with snow. The foothold is located the green resort town of Courmayor - the capital of the mountaineering and the most visited mountain resort of Europe. Kurchayor is surrounded by fir trees and larches. At the height of deciduous trees are absent. There is a spa, thermal springs and outdoor pools.

Due to the rapid influx of tourists and the development of resort towns, the local flora and fauna faced a threat to disappearance. Now in the mountainous area you can find herbivores (crops, hares, sulfas), predators (lynx, foxes, eagles). In summer, climbers notice snakes and lizards.

Traditional mountaineering was originated after the development of Mont Blanc, then the climbers began to massively conquer European peaks. For the first time ascent, recorded in historical documents, occurred in 1786. Participants became Jacques Balmo and Michelle Pakcard.

For the development and testing of the route to the upper point, a premium was promised. At the end of the XIX century, American President Theodore Roosevelt climbed on Mont Blanc.

Interesting Fact: Under Mountain there is a paid automobile tunnel, whose length has 11.5 km. It connects among the regions of France and Italy.

Shhara

Like Bazarduzu, Schhara is part of the waterproof ridge and is its highest point. The main peak number 5193 m. Shhara is located at the turn of Russia and Georgia. The Russian part breaks in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.

The slopes are covered with glaciers. From one of them begins r. Inguri. At the foot is located the Georgian community of Ushguly, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It consists of four villages and is famous for the fact that it is the most highly accommodating settlement of non-walkers.

Shhara is a popular place for mountain tourism. For the first time Mountain was mastered by the British in 1888. Then the achievement was repeated the climbers of the USSR in 1933.

until 2010 it was assumed that the absolute height of the main vertex is 5203 m. This information indicated in the Coviet Union cards denied the researchers Boris Avdeev and Peter Sean, measured height using a high-tech receiver DGPS.

The name of the mountain has many interpretations. According to one of the versions, Schhara is translated as "not monolithic". This is confirmed by many gorges in the mountain. Another option is the "ninth vertex". If you start an account from the west side, it has a ninth room in the waterproof ridge.

Lykhtau

, the troubles are fully located on the side of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. This is part of the side ridge in the Caucasus. Its height is 5204 m - Dykhtau is inferior only by Elbrus. The first on the mountain climbed 1888 Albert Mamery - a resident of England.

The name "Dykhtau" has a fairly simple translation: "High mountain". There is a climbing infrastructure - equipped with more than a dozen routes, the easiest of which has a 4a classifier. His passage will take at least 1 day. Dykhtau refers to the "five thousandths" - the mountains whose absolute height has more than 5000 m.

are characterized by constant snow and numerous glaciers. The weather in the mountains is predominantly cloudy - at this time the clouds close the review on the peak part. Avalanches and stonepads often occur in Rozhtau, often applying injuries to ski tourists.

Elbrus

The highest mountains in Europe (as part of the world) heads Elbrus height in 5642 m. It is also interesting: it is not a mountain in a classical understanding, but extinct 5 thousand years ago volcano. It is located on the side ridge, at the border of Kabardino-Balkaria.

Mountain has a large number of glaciers. Tales water flowing from them, flows into the North Caucasian rivers. The climate has a pronounced cyclicity. The spring season begins in May, by the end of the month, snow comes on the mountains. Summer in the mountains is cool, the humidity is increased. Temperature can reach 35 ° C. The actual winter originates in October. In January, the temperature drops to -12 ° C.

Elbrus is the highest mountain in Europe

for the first time climbing recorded in 1829. The group included outstanding domestic figures Adolf Kuver, Emily Lenz, Eduard Mitarri, Karl Meyer, General Georgy Emmanuel and their guides.

From the outside of the North, one of the conductors climbed, the rest of the participants did not reach the top of a little more than 300 m. A higher Western peak was mastered in 1874 by European climbers. In 1910, the first rise was performed on both peak for 1 campaign.

The history of the most significant ascents is presented in the table:

For the first time: Year of ascent Participants
First ascent1829
  • Adolf Kupfer.
  • Emily Lenz.
  • Edouard Minetri.
  • Carl Meyer.
  • General George Emmanuel.
  • Joseph Bernadazzi.
  • Janos Besse.
  • Kilar Khashirov.
Climbing the western peak1874A group of English climbers led by Florence Grove, Alexander Sottaev.
Fastest ascent (8 hours)1891Gottfried Merzbacher and Ludwig Purchell.
"Elbrus Cross"1910D. Gugi and L. De-Rami.
The ascent of a woman1925A. Japaridze.
Climbing in winter1934V. Korzunov and A. Gusev.
Skiing1939Vadim Gippenreiter

Since the 1930s lovers of mountain tourism began to visit the summit en masse - a convenient and easy route had already been developed, and tourism infrastructure had also begun to develop. In 1935, more than 2 thousand people visited it. Since then, official records have not been recorded.

The tourist sector is developed on Elbrus. There are hotels and inns, tourist bases, cafes and restaurants, points of sale of specialized equipment and uniforms. Also on the territory of the mountain itself there are cable cars, tourist camps, mountain huts, mountain shelters.

Flora and fauna of mountains

The highest mountains in Europe, as well as their comparative characteristics are presented in the table: ​​

Name Mountains Height, m ​​
ElbrusCaucasian5642
DykhtauCaucasian5204
ShkharaCaucasian5193
Mont BlancAlpine4810
DufourCaucasian4632
HouseAlpine4545
LiskammAlpine4527
WeisshornAlpine4506
MatterhornAlpine4478
Bazarduse yuCaucasian4466

The highest Alpine peaks are located near Switzerland. The mountains-record holders of Russia are partially located in the Kabardino-Balkarian and Karachay-Circassian republics. Both systems attract domestic and European fans of mountain tourism - this stimulates the development of the sphere. Every year new equipped ski resorts are opened, new tracks and routes are organized.

Flora and fauna of mountain systems differ. Mammals of the Alpine mountains live there all seasons, some go into hibernation. Among the birds, several species stay there for the winter. Those who live in the Alps permanently live in rocky cracks, forests, or near tourist bases. Alpine animals are protected by local national parks.

Most common:

  • Chamois.
  • Marmots.
  • White hares.
  • Mountain goats.

The flora of the Alps is related to the plants of polar latitudes. Those plants that grow at the foot of the mountains are small in size, short stems, rich green leaves and brightly colored flowers. Below 2400 m above sea level, dwarf deciduous trees grow, and above - conifers. After the mark of 3200 m, plants are rare.

In the Caucasus Mountains, there are everywhere:

  • Berkuts.
  • Bears.
  • Chamois.
  • Mountain goats.
  • Wild boars.
  • Hares.

Previously, lynxes and leopards could be found there, but almost all were caught by poachers. The Nature Protection Community is concerned about how natural diversity in the Caucasus is rapidly reduced. In this context, the region is ranked 24 most vulnerable in the world. In total, more than 6 thousand plants are registered in the region.

The highest mountain is called both Elbrus, located in the continent of Europe and Mont Blanc, which is located on the territory of the European Union. Officially, this status is not enshrined in any one vertex. The highest peaks are part of the Caucasian Mountains System - it runs through the European and Asian part of Russia.

Registration of the article: Mila Fridan

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