Qatar on the world map. Where is the state, rest

Qatar is included in some of the wealthiest countries in the world economy, is located on the tiny territory of the Arabian Peninsula, washed by the warm waters of the Persian Gulf, which has recently made this not the most popular Middle Eastern destination very attractive to many tourists.

General information about the state

Qatar is located on the territory of the small peninsula of the same name, stretching in the northern direction of the Persian Gulf, the waters of which from 3 sides wash the borders of this most open Arab state. On the south side of the isthmus, the country has a land border with the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.

The total length of the coast is 563 km, the area of ​​the state is 11,586 sq. km. km.

Less than 2.7 million people live here, and the population density is 146 people per sq. km. km, most of whom are Arabs.

At the head of the monarchical Islamic state is the 4th emir. The monetary unit is the rial, the exchange rate of which has been stable for many years. There is no restriction on the import and export of local currency for tourists.

To visit the country, Russian tourists need a visa, which can be obtained directly at the airport. For residents of the CIS countries, to obtain a visa, you will need to contact the consulate.

The international airport is located in the capital of the state - the city of Doha. A direct flight from Moscow takes from 5.5 hours. The ticket price is just under $500. A flight with a transfer in Istanbul takes 2 times longer, but costs about $150.

You can get to the city center from the airport by public transport:

  • 2 trips will cost 10 real. You can buy it from the driver or in a special machine.
  • A taxi ride will cost about 30-40 reais, depending on the time of day.

If you have an international driver's license, you can rent a car directly at the airport. The cost of daily rental of standard models starts from 90 to 120 reais. A deposit of 1,000 reais or a passport may be required. Driver must be over 21 years of age.

History

Archaeologists suggest that the first settlements on the peninsula appeared around 7 millennia, but written references are found only in the 1st century AD. in the manuscripts of Pliny the Elder and Herodotus, mentioning local skilled seafarers who participated in trade with India and Greece.

  1. In the initial period, the territory of Qatar belonged to the Persian Dilmun, then went to the Phoenicians, and after that to the Iranians.
  2. During the period of the aggressive policy of Alexander the Great, the lands belonged to his powerful empire, and after its collapse they went to the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, experiencing periodic seizures by the Sassanid Iranian power ruling in the Middle East.
  3. From the 7th century, the peninsula began to belong to the Arab Caliphate.
  4. In the period from the 8th to the 14th centuries, it comes under the authority of the sovereign kingdom of Bahrain. During this period, there is a noticeable economic growth in the country engaged in trade, pearling and shrimp.
  5. The internecine struggle for power of the Arab rulers weakened the state, which led to a short period of independence, when Qatar was forced to pay heavy tribute to the Ottomans.
  6. In 1510, the territory was briefly occupied by the Portuguese, after which it returned to the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
  7. Since July 1913, Great Britain succeeded in eliminating Turkey's claims to Qatari territory, as a result of which, from November 1916, an agreement was concluded on a British protectorate.
  8. After mass protests and demonstrations that have been taking place in the country since the middle of the last century, Qatar has an interim constitution, and already in May they formed their own government.
  9. In 1971, the state gained independence by signing a friendly treaty on traditional relations with Great Britain.
  10. In 2003, a referendum was held, as a result of which more than 96% of voters approved the draft constitution, which establishes the state system - an absolute monarchy with a ruling emir at the head.
  11. In 2012, an attempt was made to carry out a military coup, which ended in the defeat of the army.

The physico-geographical characteristic

Qatar is located in the southwestern part of Asia, on the small Qataris Peninsula, from 3 sides by the waters of the Persian Gulf.

Most of the depleted areas of the territory occupied by deserts:

  • in the north of the country there is a low plain With moving sands with rare oases.
  • The middle part occupies a rocky lifeless desert with numerous salt marshes.
  • The southern part of the territory covers sand dunes and high hills.

Animal and floral world is very poor. 21 species of mammals live here, most of which are contained in reserves. In wildlife and deserts, you can meet only rodents and reptiles. In coastal waters, there are many sea turtles, as well as periodically there are quite large colonies of Digo.

There are no permanent water sources in the country and rivers, so only a small volume comes from underground key, the main part falls on the desalination of sea water, which affects the price.

Dry tropical continental climate brings in summer, which lasts from the end of May to the end of September, very strong heat. The air temperature in the daytime clock is often rises to +50 ° C, which is accompanied by very high humidity on the coast.

In the winter months, the air temperature fluctuates in a very comfortable framework from +20 ° C to +30 ° C.

The annual precipitation does not exceed 85 mm. Short-term rains fall out from December to March. Sunny weather is observed throughout the year.

Administrative division

The territory of the modern state is divided into unequal municipalities or baladiyat. Currently, they are numbered 7, each of which consists of several administrative zones, divided into districts and neighborhoods.

The economy and standard of living

The fundamental changes in the economic development of the country occurred from the middle of the last century in connection with the oil reserves found in 1939. Industrial mining and mineral exports led to an unprecedented increase in the welfare of the population.

GDP growth changes are regulated directly by the prices of the global market for energy carriers, , which affects the growth of national income per capita:

Basic periods An indicator of GDP per capita
198219,000
199512 000 $
200221 500 $
2005$ 32,000

The standard of living of the population is already quite a long time at a very high level. The average annual working salary is about $ 7.5 thousand. There is no unemployment in the country.

In addition to the oil and gas industry, energy is widely developed in the country. For household needs, electricity is provided free of charge. Also, local residents are fully exempted from taxes and pension deductions, regularly paying profit from the state. Corporate tax is 10% of the total annual income.

is actively developing in the modern state banking, construction business, as well as cement production, various finishing and building materials.

Only 3% of the territory of the country occupied by the processed lands, where the year is grown on average:

  • more than 4 thousand tons of barley;
  • 1.8 thousand tons of corn;
  • 18 thousand tons. Dates and fruits;
  • 53.5 thousand tons of various vegetables and mesh cultures.

The social policy of the state ensures the population of free medical services, education and training.

Cultural features

Qatar is located in a number of Islamic states of the Sunni sense, but allocated to the greatest openness.

Arabian lifestyle imposes its own features on the cultural traditions of the country's residents:

  • Strict rules of conduct;
  • ban on alcohol;
  • Strict observance of posts;
  • eating freebies;
  • Maximum closed clothing with a mandatory headdress;
  • The ban on bikini and smelting on public beaches does not apply to the private territory of most hotels.

To modern numerous tourists, strict restrictions do not directly relate, but adhere to a certain lifestyle still recommended from respect to local traditions.

It is advisable not to visit guests unannounced, to observe the rules of courtesy, to accept or serve objects only with the right hand, not to show the soles of the feet or shoes, and when entering the house, be sure to take off your shoes.

It is not customary to refuse to treat the host, as a joint meal is an important ritual in any relationship.

Alcoholic beverages are not commercially available and may only be consumed in a licensed restaurant, bar or hotel. The prices for these products of any fortress are very high, as they are subject to an additional tax. Don't offer alcohol to locals.

During Ramadan, it is not customary to eat and smoke during the daytime in public places. Also, do not look at praying people, take photos without prior approval and permission.

Leisure

The main attractions in Qatar are malls, bars and restaurants, jeep or camel rides in the desert, diving and the beach. An important detail of club parties is their short duration. All night establishments in the country close at 2 o'clock and outdoor areas should not play music after midnight.

Concerts and performances by big stars are quite rare here, so you should book and purchase tickets in advance. But fans of sports entertainment will be satisfied. Doha regularly hosts various cups, championships and tournaments in football, boxing, athletics, tennis.

Diving and parachuting are very popular in the country, but they cost a lot of money.

The main resort of the country is Doha, where most of the luxury hotels located in the central part or on the 1st coastline are concentrated. Here, all the staff are fluent in English, and in many hotels you can find Russian-speaking staff and guides.

Doha at night, Qatar

Beachside hotel guests are offered wide sandy beaches with a gentle and convenient entrance to the sea. All vacationers are provided with free sunbeds and sun umbrellas. On private closed beaches of hotels, you can sunbathe and swim in the form familiar to Europeans, without violating the existing ban in the country.

Some hotels in the city center have their own outdoor pools with comfortable sunbathing areas.

Attractions

Qatar is still a Middle Eastern tourist novelty, where there are a large number of modern museums, interesting cultural sites and natural attractions.

Museum of Islamic Art

This unique modern museum is located in the original building built on the project of the world-famous architect in the form of limestone cubes with a huge glass wall from the sea illuminating the atrium.

The interior is decorated in the best traditions of the East in a restrained style using a sophisticated elite of traditional ornaments, expensive qualitative materials were used in the decoration.

Spacious rooms, with a total area of ​​more than 45 square meters. m, demonstrate to visitors exhibits from around the world. It contains the ancient Arabic manuscripts, exquisite jewelry, elegant metal and ceramics, Persian carpets, richest collection of cold weapons, national costumes and Iranian tiles.

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besides a permanent exhibition, works of art from the collections of leading museums of the world are regularly exhibited.

At the center of Islamic art, a cafe and a restaurant operates, there is a souvenir shop. The museum is located in the center of the capital on the artificial island on the Kornish Embankment, within walking distance of Tynka Wakif.

You can get from any part of the city by taxi, the parking of which is located next to the museum complex. There is also a spacious parking lot. You can take a bus route No. 76.

, visit the museum can be completely free on any day of the week from Wednesday to Sunday:

day of the week start of work Closure
Monday, Wednesday Sunday10-3017-30
Thursday and Saturday9-0019 -00
Friday13-3019-00

nearby Park with an improvised market, a convenient observation platform and an original modern sculpture of the American Master-minimalist Richard Serry.

Fort Al-Zubara

This is an old well-preserved residential fishing settlement-fortress is located in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Site, located in the northwestern part of Qatar, 105 km from the capital.

Inside the strengthening is equipped with 8 spacious premises, where stands are decorated with photographs from the place of archaeological research. The museum of the history of these places was created next to, where the exhibits found during the excavations are placed: ceramic dishes, bones, labor guns of pearls and various decorations.

It is possible to inspect the fort and the museum for free, excavations are still on the rest of the ancient city, so the passage for tourists is closed.

You can get to the archaeological area by public transport or by taxi.

The museum is open from 8 am to 7 pm from Sunday to Thursday, break from 12 pm to 3 pm, closed on Friday and Saturday.

Ethnographic village

This unique complex is dedicated to the culture and historical life of the country. On a vast territory there are labyrinths of cobbled streets, green well-groomed gardens, an Ottoman golden Masjid and a turquoise mosque, an opera and drama theater with traditional Arabic decoration for 500 spectators.

An impressive ancient Greek-style amphitheater has also been built here, accommodating more than 5 thousand spectators for large-scale theatrical performances and concerts. The galleries exhibit works of art by emerging local and well-known foreign masters.

In restaurants and cafes, you can taste various authentic dishes, and buy souvenirs in souvenir shops.

The complex is open for free admission every day from 9:30 to 17:00, located next to the city beach, at the address: West Bay Lagoon area of ​​Doha.

Shopping

Qatar is located in the Middle East, so it is customary to haggle beautifully and cheerfully here. Tourists should definitely visit local bazaars for bright and rich impressions.

Souk Waqif

The most colorful and rich market is located in the center of the capital near the bus station, offers a huge assortment of various spices, fruits and vegetables, food, jewelry, perfumes, original souvenirs and handicraft goods.

In the labyrinth of malls, there is an art gallery and a cafe where you can enjoy a real local breakfast. There are also areas for smoking hookah.

This is not a tourist place, so here you can not only admire local products, but also buy the necessary goods at a bargain price.

The bazaar is open around the clock, but in the late evening and at night it loses its oriental flavor. It is best to visit this place in the early morning or after the afternoon heat, when the most active trade is observed.

Falcon Market

This unusual bazaar is located next to the famous Vakif and consists of more than 3.5 dozen small shops selling hunting birds for the country's main sport.

Falcons sit blindfolded on special perches. An adult trained bird can cost several thousand dollars.

Birds of prey show competitions are regularly held at the beginning of the year. Also in the falconry market there is a special bird hospital with experienced veterinarians who can provide the necessary assistance.

Interesting places for families with children

This amazing country is ideal for families. Here you can choose entertainment to your taste for children of all ages. All hotels have children's entertainment clubs and playrooms, a wide variety of attractions, swimming pools and skating rinks are available in all major shopping centers and their surrounding areas.

Alkhor Park & Zoo

This traditional amusement park is located on a large green area in the suburbs of the capital, combined with a natural science museum and a zoo. Here you can spend the whole day with your family walking along beautiful alleys, admiring landscape compositions, waterfalls and fountains.

You can move around the park on a small train that takes visitors to all the sights and interesting exhibits. There are many different attractions and playgrounds for children of all ages, there are cafes and picnic areas, a golf course and places for beautiful photos.

Entrance ticket for a child costs 10 real, for adults 15 real. The park is open from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m., but the zoo closes at 6 p.m. On Tuesdays, only women and children are allowed into the park.

Water park

In the summer season, you can visit the water park with the whole family, located on an area of ​​about 50 thousand square meters. m. There are many water rides, slides and pools with artificial whirlpools, waterfalls and waves of different heights.

It will be interesting for teenagers to ride through the high-speed tunnel, 150 m long. There are extreme rides and multi-level slides of 20 meters in height. There are spa areas with jacuzzi and sun loungers for a comfortable lazy holiday, cafes and restaurants.

The park is open daily, except Sunday, according to the following schedule:

]
Day of the week Operating hours
Monday10 am to 7 pm
Tuesday12 am to 8 pm
Wednesday10 am to 7 pm
Thursday11 am to 9 pm
Friday10 am to 10 pm
SaturdayFrom 10 am to 8 pm

You can find the water park at: Salwa Road Exit 29 Abu Nakhla، Doha. The most convenient way to get there is by renting a car or taking a taxi.

Qatar is considered not only one of the richest countries in the world, but also an actively developing very hospitable state, where there are many interesting cultural sites and original colorful entertainment that attract researchers and fans of the Middle East from all over the world.

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