Machu Picchu. Where is Peru, photos, coordinates on the map

Machu Picchu (or "old mountain") is one of the most mysterious places on the planet, located on the territory of the state of Peru. It is located on the top of a mountain range at an altitude of 2400 m. In 1983, the ruins of this ancient city were classified by UNESCO as a world heritage site.

Where is the Inca city of Machu Picchu on the map, coordinates

Machu Picchu is located 1320 km southeast of the capital of Peru, Lima and 240 km from the most popular Peruvian tourist city ​​of Cusco.

Coordinates: -13.162377, -72.544736.

History of discovery

Machu Picchu is a city with a history of more than 500 years. It was discovered in 1911 by the American archaeologist Hiram Bingham.

The ancient city of Machu Picchu

However, Bingham cannot be called a discoverer, since almost a quarter of a century ago the location of this archaeological site was already noted on the maps by the German Hermann Goering, and even earlier, Machu Picchu was visited more than once by various kinds of adventurers, seekers of ancient treasures.

In addition, at the time of opening (1911) the city was not empty. Peasants lived here, who occupied the terraces for small-scale agriculture.

Founding Machu-Picchu approximately in 1450. Pachaktakek Uzupansi - the 9th Inca Kapack of the Kingdom of Cusco, who subsequently became the ruler of the Empire Incas. According to experts, the number of inhabitants in the city reached 700-1000 people. Study Machu Picchu puts more mysteries than answers gives.

Scientists have many questions related to the construction of the city: how it was possible to build it at such a height or get such a dense polygonal masonry during construction.

there is no answer and the question why, with an obvious advantage, which gave the high mountain location of the city, in 1532 the residents still left Machu Picchu, although Spanish conquistadors had almost no opportunity to get to them.

According to one of the versions, the city of Cusco, who supplied Machu Picchu everything was necessary, was captured by the conquerors and citizens, remaining without the necessary supplies, were forced to leave the city.

Modern condition

Picchu Machu is in a hard-to-reach place. To maintain tourist interest in the object, from the city of Cusco to Agas-Caltentes (this is the city closest to the attractions, which is 6 km), the railway runs up to 10 trains daily.

from Aguas-calcenthese (it is also called Machupich) to historical ruins walk buses (to reduce the flow of tourists, refused to build a cable car).

After giving it the status of the object of the world heritage (included in 1983), Machu-Picchu annually attracts a huge number of tourists, which cannot be affected without negative consequences in the state of the monument. Therefore, in 2011, the number of tourists was limited to 2.5 thousand per day. However, this figure is planned to reduce to 800 people.

Mount Wine Picchu is also part of the historical monument, so the rise on it can only make 400 people per day.

Since 2012, according to the decision of UNESCO, Machu-Picchu is expelled from the list of objects under threat, but it continues to be under the supervision of security organizations.

What is in Machu-Picchu

Picchu Machu is a small city (dimensions 530 per 200 m), in which no more than 2 hundred buildings are located.

It is clearly divided into 3 areas:

  • urban;
  • Agricultural;
  • religious.

Machu Picchu had narrow streets lined with residential 2-story houses.

Multi-tiered terraces give the city a special charm. Their main purpose was not agriculture, but the protection of the mountain from a huge amount of rainwater (on average, up to 193 mm of precipitation falls here per year). The terraces were composed of several layers: black soil on top, then sandy rock, then gravel and large stones. Therefore, the water did not flow down them, but slowly soaked into the soil.

The visible part of Machu Picchu is huge, but about 60% of the city is hidden underground - this is a complex drainage system that keeps it in place.

Above the terraces there was a city cemetery.

Temple of the Sun

The temple is a large semicircular tower. Adjacent to it is a building resembling a fortress. Inside the tower there is a hewn piece of rock, which probably served as a temple altar.

Another confirmation of the religious significance of the building is the chakana (a stepped cross, widespread among South American tribes), installed next to the Temple of the Sun. Under the tower is a grotto, the purpose of which is still controversial.

Aristocratic quarter

The houses of the nobility were separated by the main square from the dwellings of ordinary citizens.

You can determine the house of an aristocrat by the complexity of the polygonal masonry.

Main square

It could serve as the religious center of the city. On its northern side there is a 3-walled granite building, built of huge blocks. Adjacent to the western wall of the temple is a small room called the Decorated Room.

The Temple of the Three Windows

The eastern part of the square is decorated with a temple structure called the “Temple of the Three Windows”. The windows, made in the shape of a trapezoid, face east. The first rays of the rising sun passed through them, which was probably used in religious rites.

On the sides of the window openings there are "blind windows" of the same size.

Intivatana

Along the granite slope from the Sacred Square to the top of the mountain, where there is a stone cut in the rock, a long granite staircase stretches. The stone is called "Intihuatana" (Kech. Intihuatana), which translates as "the place where the sun is tied." This is the highest point of the whole complex. According to Bingham, here, during the winter solstice, the priests "tethered" the sun.

At the same time, the priests could use it to determine the time of sowing and harvesting.

Condor Temple

The outline of the temple is very similar to Condor: the central stone is similar to the bird's head, and the two side cliffs located on the sides are associated with wings. Condor for Incov was a sacred bird, personified freedom and air. The temple was probably the sanctuary where he was worshiped.

The present name of the construction is unknown. Perhaps the temple was called. The fact is that the sun on certain days illuminates the structure in such a way that his shadow on earth resembles a silhouette of a huge bird. In addition, the image of the Condor is on the stones near the temple.

Prison

Not far from the Temple of Condor is a construction with small niches, called archaeologists in prison.

Incas did not have taken to contain prisoners for a long time. In prison, they were several days, until the elders voted the sentence: pardon, execution or payment of Dani. There is an assumption that in such prisons could contain people intended for ritual killings. However, all these are only the assumptions of modern researchers.

The sacred stone

on the beliefs of the Inca, after the death of the soul was associated with the body of the deceased until the drainage was taken. In order to preserve the outer shell, the bodies of the clergy and the nobility are in a special way mummified. It happened on a ritual stone located beyond the city.

The stone had three oxes (steps), symbolizing the sky, the earth and the underground kingdom. The body of the deceased was placed on him, which was mummy naturally as a result of the impact of wind, day and night temperatures.

The tsarist tomb

so called the natural cave formation treated with people. About one hundred mums were found here, most of which were female.

The outer stones of the cave are hazardous by the ancient masters in such a way that during the torrential rains the wall of the water closes the entrance to the tomb, but does not fall into it, but flows Further along the hill.

Fountains

in the city of 16 fountains.

They serve as an ornament and a source of drinking water, capable of providing up to 1000 people.

The disappearance of the gold of the Incas

Cusco (the capital of the Incas) was indeed a real Eldorado. Here all the values ​​of South America were focused. The inhabitants were forbidden to carry yellow metal from the city. Every year about 170 tons of gold came here from all over the empire, but where it disappeared - it remains a mystery. There are many versions of this.

German

Some people tend to believe that the Inca gold was found and taken out by the Germans during their expeditions in South America.

Vatican

Today, the Catholic Church is considered the richest in the world, and it began to grow rich rapidly after the discovery of South America.

Peruvian

According to this version, gold was sacrificed by the Incas to the god of fire and thrown into the Sangay volcano, which became the last refuge for treasures.

Some scholars admit that the Incas did not have such a huge supply of gold at all. Now a large collection of gold items is stored in the museum of the city of Lima.

A few years ago, German scientists examined these museum exhibits and came to the conclusion that 85% of them are fakes. And the same products that are recognized as real are not pure gold, but are a gold alloy with a high copper content.

However, all these are only versions, and the secret of sacred gold is still a mystery.

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Rules for visiting Machu Picchu

In order to preserve the unique monument in its original form, the Ministry of Culture of Peru introduced rules for visiting the site in 2019: 188) entry is allowed only at the time indicated on the purchased ticket;

  • The time that visitors can spend in Machu Picchu is limited and depends on the type of ticket;
  • visits are permitted only when accompanied by a guide authorized to provide such a service;
  • Tourists can only use the ticket for one entry (leaving and then re-entering Machu Picchu is not allowed).
  • Opening hours, entrance tickets

    Machu Picchu is located between two mountains: Machu Picchu (3050 m) and Wayna Pikchu (2693 m), which are also part of the archaeological complex and are accessible for visiting. Climbing the peaks is paid.

    Important:

    • When buying a ticket, you must select the exact time.
    • You should definitely have a passport with you. Otherwise, the ticket purchase will be refused.

    Opening hours - from 6 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Phone: +51 84 582030. E-mail: [email protected]

    Ticket prices (for foreign tourists) and schedule for 2021:

    Places to visit Ticket price Time of visit
    Machu Picchu cityfull – $65;

    student (up to 25 years old) - $ 39.

    from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. (1 shift) and

    from 12 a.m. to 5 p.m.30 minutes. (2nd shift).

    City and mountain of Machu Picchufull - $80;

    student (under 25) - $54.

    Climbing the mountain (no more than 800 people):

    1 group: 7:00 - 8:00;

    Group 2: 9:00 – 10:00.

    Machu Picchu City and Mount Huayna Picchufull - $80;

    student (under 25) - $54.

    Climbing the mountain (no more than 400 people):

    1 group: 7:00 - 8:00 (200 people);

    Group 2: 10:00 – 11:00 (200 people)

    Tours to Machu Picchu, prices

    Tour from Moscow to Machu Picchu (estimated prices for 2021):

    • 12 days - 167,300 rubles. (flight and accommodation for 1 person);
    • 7 days - 128,900 rubles. (for 1 person);
    • 6 days - 115,100 rubles. (for 1 person).

    A one-day tour from Cusco to the Inca city costs about 250 USD per person.

    How to get to Machu Picchu on your own from Cusco

    There are several ways to get to the legendary ruins from Cusco.

    By bus and taxi

    This is the recommended option. By bus 1 h 30 min. from Cusco to Ollantaytambo (buses leave every hour, cost 382.91 rubles). Further from Ollantaytambo to Machu Picchu 3 hours 19 minutes. by taxi (148.6 km). The total cost is 6,837–8,478 rubles.

    By train

    The cheapest option. The journey from Cusco to Aguas Calientes takes 3 hours and 51 minutes. (106.4 km, cost 5,196–5,743 rubles). Buses run from Aguas Calientes (Machupicchu) (only 6 km).

    Taxi

    Taxi from Cusco to Machu Picchu 210.2 km (4 hours 20 minutes). The cost for one way is 9,846–11,760 rubles.

    By car

    By car, the journey from Cusco to Machu Picchu also takes 4 hours and 20 minutes. Approximate cost of fuel: 1,367–2,188 rubles.

    When is the best time to visit Machu Picchu

    Machu Picchu is located in the subtropical climate zone. The most comfortable weather for visiting the sights is the off-season period (autumn, spring). However, the high tourist period in Peru runs from May to September. If the trip is scheduled for this time, then you should purchase tickets in advance and book hotel rooms.

    April and October are ideal times to visit Machu Picchu.

    Hotels near Machu Picchu

    Since Machu Picchu is a popular tourist destination, there are a lot of accommodation options. You can stay in the closest city to Machu Picchu, Aguas Calientes.

    Jaya Suite Machupicchu

    Features:

    • Distance to thermal source - 600 m;
    • to the historic sanctuary of the city - 2.5 km;
    • in 200 m is Vinyauyna Park, at a distance of 1.1 km - Museum of Manuel Chaveza Cylon.

    Services provided:

    • there is a tour desk;
    • currency exchange;
    • round-the-clock security;
    • Safe;
    • Breakfast is served as a buffet or menu;
    • Each room is equipped with air conditioning, a flat-screen TV.

    The cost of a 2-bed number 6 866 rubles.

    Vista Machu Picchu

    The hotel is located in the city center: 700 m to thermal sources and 2.6 km to Wain Picchu.

    Residence conditions:

    • Terrace overlooking the mountain range, an outdoor pool;
    • in the rooms TV, fan, telephone, private bathroom;
    • Breakfast included.
    Swimming pool at Vista Machu Picchu

    Cost of accommodation in a 2-bed room 2 256 руб.

    Hotel Ferre Machu Picchu

    The hotel is 6.1 km from the ancient Machu-Picchu sanctuary, 200 meters from the city center and 700 meters from hot springs.

    Services provided:

    • Transfer from / to the airport;
    • Air conditioning, Bathroom, TV, mini bar;
    • Restaurant on site;
    • Breakfast included in the price;
    • Wellness spa, general sauna.
    View from the Ferre Machu Picchu restaurant window

    Service is possible in 3 languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese. Room cost for two from 3,719 rubles. (Note. Prices are indicated for April 2021)

    However, there is one hotel in close proximity to the archaeological monument.

    Hotel "Belmond Sanctuary Lodge" (5 stars)

    He is the only one, located next to the mysterious Citadel Inca (approximately 2 km away). It is literally within walking distance of the sun's temple and Inti Punch, which means the "Gate of the Sun".

    Here they offer a wide range of services:

    • massage and aromatic procedures;
    • yoga classes;
    • Culinary master classes;
    • Routes for hiking, Tour Bureau Services and much more.

    At the main building of the hotel there is a garden with furniture on an open veranda. Here you can admire an almost countless variety of colors and birds that this region inhabits.

    The hotel's own restaurant is prepared only from seasonal organic products purchased directly from local farmers. In the regional dishes menu, among them Sevic. You can order a special diet menu.

    The cost of staying at the hotel from 52,983 rubles. per day. But this does not prevent BELMOND SANCTUARY LODGE to be demanded. Therefore, even in a low season number here should be booked in advance.

    Machu Picchu became one of the most famous sights of Peru. Some attend her to see the beautiful ancient ruins, others attract the alleged communication of Machu Picchu with sources of spiritual energy.

    But there are people who consider the monument solely from a commercial point of view. For example, one family is tried in court to prove that Machu Picchu is their property inheritance.

    Video about the city of Incov

    Eagle and river: Machu Picchu:

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