Lake Victoria. Where is located on the world map in Africa, the area, who discovered it, photo and description

Lake Victoria is an extensive natural water with fresh water - The biggest area of ​​the lake on the African continent. It is rich in Flora, fauna and many species of exotic animals.

The local population calls him "Nyanza", which in the literal translation means "big water". On the world map, it is clear that the lake is located in the eastern part of Africa and enters the territory of the three states: Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.

Lake Lake

Victoria Lake is located in the east of Africa along the equator. Tourists attract various types of colors and fish, as well as unique reserves. Visitors will not leave indifferent beautiful natural landscapes. Lake Victoria is a great place for professional fishermen, but the occupation is dangerous.

After all, there is a possibility that fishermen can become prey, as the lake is replete with crocodiles. Due to this, hunting tours for extremes have been created. Some varieties of animals were on the verge of extinction, due to frequent hunting activities.

Many tourists attract unique reserves, which are formed around the lake. On the map you can see their location. Lake Victoria has endemic species of animals and plants. In her waters, the special kind of Lang's fish lives, which by studies of scientists lived here about three hundred million years ago. Lang's fish without where in the world it is impossible to meet.

Among the reserves there is a particularly well-known park, its terrain inhabit more than half a thousand species of birds. The park is located on Rubonddo Island. The island makes it possible to study various types of animals in a natural environment. In the park there is a chance to meet Antelope Sitatungu.

Most visitors wish to visit the island to meet the animal's unique beauty. Antelope attracts lakes and swampy terrain. Only walks are allowed in the park, moving on the car is prohibited in order to conserve nature.

Saanane Island is located in Tanzania, it is the smallest national park in this city. Also Mgingo Island which is popular for fishing.

Lake Victoria can be reached by plane to the airport in the city of Mwanza or by train. Further it is better to get to the coast of the lake by car or taxi. This will amount to about half an hour drive.

It is advisable to visit the national parks from November to March. During this period, on the islands of the southwestern part, the climate becomes humid, tropical downpours begin. Thanks to this, the territory acquires beautiful wild flowers and more than 30 species of orchids.

The origin of Lake Victoria and its name

Until 1920, the lake was called Victoria-Nyanza. ​​The lake was then named by an English traveler after Queen Victoria. Due to the fact that the lake borders on three states, it has several names. In 1960, there were proposals by countries to give the lake one name. But there was no final decision.

Study and development of Lake Victoria

The lake was discovered by the English traveler John Henning Speke. It was he who gave the lake its name. The development of the lake was July 30, 1858.John Speke suggested that the reservoir originates from the Nile. After Henry Stanley's expedition returned, John Speke's claim was confirmed.

The history of Lake Victoria

According to scientists, the reservoir arose due to the formation of the Edward and Albert depressions. Their location was in the fault zone in eastern Africa. This happened in the middle of the Anthropogenic period. The place where the watercourse originated was turned to the east, on a plateau trough. A large reservoir was formed, the volume of which was considered huge.

Physical and geographical characteristics of Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria is considered a relict lake. The shores of the lake are swampy, strongly indented, they are low and flat. Victoria has beautiful sandy beaches. For example, the shores of Saanane Island are mostly rocky, but there are also gentle areas. There are savannas around the lake, to the northwest of the coast there is an equatorial forest with a humid climate.

The depth of Lake Victoria

In some places, the transparency of the lake can reach up to 8 m. landscapes: sandy soils, scree. Lake Victoria exceeds the size of the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov, which is why it is often called the sea.

In the period of strong hurricanes, bays and inlets provide shelter for ships. According to scientists, it is believed that Lake Victoria had a larger area than today. At that time, the lake covered the entire area of ​​Uganda. His east coast had a border with Rudolph lake. Often the water level on Lake Victoria fluctuates.

A large amount of water lifting was celebrated in 1961-1964. The length of the coastline is more than 7,000 km. The height above sea level is 1134 m. The area of ​​the lake has more than 68 thousand km2. The largest depth of reservoir is 80 m. The length is more than 300 km, and the width is more than 200 km. The average depth of the lake 40 m.

Lake Victoria on the world map significantly different, it is more in its area than most lakes. The lake has numerous islands, the biggest of them is the island of coma, Ucesev, Mansoma.

Climate

The climate is equatorial-tropical. In the year, the rains go two seasons. Due to the large amount of water in the lake, the climate is softened within a radius of about 80 km. There is a decrease in dryness of air and its temperature.

The seasons are distinguished by the number of precipitation. In summer there are periods of shower, which leads to a flood, and in winter there are fewer precipitation. During the month in the winter period, precipitation may not be.

In the summer, about 1700 ml can be poured almost daily. precipitation. Often it happens in the season of tropical rains. In April and May, the sediments fall more often - these are especially rainy months.

For one month, Victoria lake receives approximately 250 ml of water. The air temperature is very rarely lowered to the mark below +26 ° C. The water temperature of the upper layer can be heated to +24 ° C. Morozov and snow in this area usually does not happen.

Hurricanes and tornadoes are possible, so the lake is ranked among the world's dangerous places. In addition, the territory of Lake Victoria has a large number of poisonous insects. Because of the roast climate, evaporating a large amount of water, but does not happen shallow water.

Huge evaporation is compensated by tropical rains. The climate is very volatile, hot weather can be replaced by a cold and wet wind. This is due to the fact that the lake is located above sea level.

The amount of precipitation in millimeters from 1956 to 1978:

city The amount of precipitation for the year
Musoma895
Entebbe1620
Book2147
of the calangale2216
Mwanza1100

Flora and Fauna

The coast is often encountered by roasters, papyrus, banana palm trees. The most common plants are considered to be Acacia, Mimosa, cypress.

Lake Victoria on the world map has picturesque islands. Hippo, flamingos, Venetian cranes are inhabited. It is here that some varieties of fish are found that can live in aquarium. There are more than 300 thousand species of water inhabitants in the lake, of which are species that are no longer inhabited.

Fire backs, a bugger, representatives of the family of cichlomes live in the lake. They are distinguished by one feature - when the danger approaches the risk, the fools strive to hide in the mouth of the females. When the danger passed, they float out. In the lake lives an unusual view of the fish, called the protoper.

Fish is distinguished by what can breathe not only by gills, but also light. A variety of exotic butterflies live on the island. Here you can see a variety of poisonous snakes, so it is desirable to have a guide accompaniment.

In the Rubddo Reserve there are green monkeys, hippos, dickery, rhinos, elephants, chimpanzees, mangone, giraffes. Many birds are decorated with the coast of the lake, various bright colors.

There may be a variety of birds: storks, eagles, cormorants, royal kingfishers, ibisa. New fish species appear in the lake. About 5 species were found, which are distinguished by their color.

in the lake dwells the Nile Okun, which can reach up to 1 m in length. The presence of hypopotamos in the lake sometimes leads to the death of people. The weight of the animal varies from 1.5 to 4 tons, so it can easily turn the boat.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfyGuok9j7q

Plugging rivers

of rivers, which fall into the lake bring about 18% water.

Some flowing rivers in Lake Victoria and their characteristics:

  1. The Kager River is the main river that flows into the water from the east, the length of more than 30 km.
  2. Nzina The length of about 250 km is in Kenya, is an important natural resource, has many waterfalls.

Ecological condition

The ecological condition of the Lake Victoria is in great danger. It happens because of the rapid cutting of the trees along the whole shore. In addition, the population along the coast increases. Due to global warming, the amount of precipitation decreases is another reason for reducing the volume of water in the lake.

due to the shores of Lake Victoria gradually settled by people suffering from ecology

more than 40% of fish disappear, because the company is drained Dirty waters, as well as sewage waters of local settlements. The bottom of the lake is polluted by various waste and chemicals. In the period of shower, part of the fertilizer is washed off from the fields and pollutes Victoria. To increase the number of fish representatives, the Nile perch was brought into the reservoir, then many fish disappeared in the lake.

This damage was enormous and for the most part irreparable. In addition, water lilies brought to Africa have harmed the lake and its inhabitants. Water lilies are very stable and have strong reproduction.

In 1990, the fish population in the lake was greatly reduced due to water lilies, which absorb a large amount of oxygen. Also, their antennae close the inflow and outflow of water, and this complicates navigation.

During the 20th century, the level of phosphorus in Lake Victoria doubled, due to the breeding of the Nile perch, as well as overcrowding of the population, forest clearing. Perhaps this is what led to the emergence of cyanobacteria, due to which the destruction of fish occurs.

The Owen Falls Dam allowed the water level to rise to 3 m. Ecologists warn that all aquatic life could die within 60 years due to the entry of harmful chemicals into the reservoir. Local residents, as well as some organizations, are involved in the conservation of the reservoir. Experts recommend reducing fishing and chemical pollution of the lake.

How Lake Victoria is used

Most of the people here grow coffee, bamboo and cotton. Several ports are organized on the coast of the lake, and shipping is active. Africans enjoy the fresh water of Lake Victoria. Water transport is well developed here, large ports are organized.

Near Africa there is a large deposit of gold and diamonds. Nile perch is well bought for the population of Europe, at a high price. The local population is engaged in fishing, fish processing takes place in factories near the coast of Lake Victoria.

Recreational resources of Lake Victoria

Thanks to the construction of a power plant on the shore and basin of the lake, the water resources of the lake are visible. Lake Victoria leak occurs in the village, which is located in the city of Uganda. Approximately 12 thousand years ago, the White Nile was located in this area.

This section of the river broke through a dam of rocks and rocks. In 1952, a power plant was established. Engineers have improved this natural dam and reservoir. In 2002, the second power plant was organized. According to the research of hydrologists, it was revealed that a large leakage of water through power plants led to a huge change in the water level in the reservoir.

Interesting facts

  1. Lake Victoria has the bulk of fresh water. It is ranked among the largest freshwater bodies of the entire planet.
  2. According to geologists, it is believed that the lake dried up several times.
  3. around the lake lives more than 34 million. The area of ​​Lake Victoria is comparable to the territory of Ireland.
  4. The history of Victoria begins about 400 thousand years ago.
  5. Due to the infection of the lake with terrestrial, it is impossible to swim in it.
  6. on the shore of the lake dwells fly, which infects sleepy disease.
  7. In this area, it is possible to infect yellow fever or malaria.
  8. Lake Victoria has more than 2000 islands.

Despite the worsening ecology and reduction of heavy rains, the lake retains unique species of animals. A visit to this place will enjoy the picturesque nature, to meet a rare ichthyofauna. On the world map you can see all rivers flowing into the Victoria Lake. Some of them have beautiful waterfalls.

Registration of the article: Vladimir Great

Video about Lake Victoria

Journey to Lake Victoria: