- Where is the lake
- History of the lake
- Origin of the name
- Characteristics of the lake
- Dimensions of the lake
- Salinity and composition of water
- Relationship with the World Ocean
- Flora and fauna
- Ecological situation
- How it is used
- Recreational resources
- Entertainment and recreation
- Interesting facts
- Video about the lake
Huron is a large lake of the North American continent. It is part of the Great Lakes system and is located between Lakes Superior and Michigan. The connection between the Huron and the Upper is via the St. Marys River. Huron is connected to Lake Michigan by the Strait of Mackinac. To the south is Lake Erie.
Where is the lake
Lake Huron, if you look at the map, is located on the border of Canada and the United States. On the Canadian side, the province of Ontario adjoins the northern and eastern shores of the reservoir. From the US side, the western and southern parts of Huron adjoin the state of Michigan.
Object coordinates: 44.9931 s. sh. and 81.945 z. e. From the Canadian side, you can drive to Lake Huron. From Toronto, follow the Trans-Canada Highway through 9 provinces.
The history of the lake
Huron is the first of the Great Lakes, which came across on the way of colonizers from Europe. The dates of discovery and the names of the discoverers vary in different sources. According to one version, Europeans learned about the existence of Lake Huron in 1656. The French cartographer Nicolas Saxon was the first to describe the coastline of the reservoir.
According to another version, in 1615, the Frenchmen Samuel de Champlain, in pairs in Etienne Brule, reached the lake while sailing along the Ottawa and Mattawa rivers.
Before the inhabitants of the Old World appeared on the mainland, Indian tribes lived on the banks of the Huron. The most powerful and numerous tribe was called the Hurons. The main activity of the local population was agriculture and hunting. Among the tribes that inhabited the shores of the lake, there was an exchange of food, weapons and jewelry.
Often there were military conflicts. With the beginning of colonization, French hunters and adventurers came to the Huron area. They established an exchange of goods with the Indians. Europeans brought them iron tools, fabrics, alcohol, beads. In exchange, they received furs and furs, which these lands were rich in.
Lake Huron is located among the North American forests. On the shores during the colonization of this region a lot of cities are based. At first, these were settlements that were created as woodworking and mining centers. Later the villages became large industrial cities.
Simultaneously with the arrival of industrialists in the Guron area and missionaries. Their goal was the appeal of the Aboriginal in the Catholic religion.
by the end of the XVII century. Only a small part remained from the numerous guron tribe. Now there are 4 thousand people in the world for this tribe. The place of their stay is Quebec Province in Canada. Culture, life and language them are completely lost.
If the French colonized America from the side of modern Canada, the British began to master the territory of the Great Lakes on the part of the United States in the XVIII century. The border between French and British possessions was held on Lake Huron after the war of independence of the United States.
The origin of the title
The Indians of the Huron tribe called themnd themselves. Aborigines were called Karenondi. Europeans transferred this name to their manner and turned out to be "freshwater sea". So colonizers signed the lake on their maps. The French who came to this area began to call the vendates in their own way, namely "Gur".
In translation, the word meant "cut-off head". Externally, the high-circuit hairstyle of the Indians looked like this picture. So the name of Hurons is fixed behind the tribe. Later, this name passed to the lake.
The characteristic of the lake
in many respects can be called Lake Huron unique: there are rare species of animals and plants, a huge supply of fresh water, a long coastline. From a long time, the reservoir attracted people, here you could always find water and food.
The dimensions of the lake
in the system of the Great Lake Huron ranks second in the area - 59.6 thousand km2. In the first place lake top with an area of 82.1 thousand km2. In the ranking of the biggest freshwater lakes of the world, Huron occupies 3rd place. Ahead of only Lake Top and Victoria.
the reservoir has an almost oval shape, elongated in the direction from the North-West to the southeast. Maximum length 332 km, and width - 295 km. The coastline has many irregularities. The total length of the shore has 6159 km along with numerous islands.
The largest island of Lake Manitulin. Its sizes are more Luxembourg. The island area is 766 km2. This is the largest land plot that is located in a fresh reservoir. At Manitulina is Lake Manitu. It is also called the "lake in the lake."
The area of the inner reservoir is about 106.42 km2. Another large island in the pond is Makino in the Strait of the same name. In total there are more than 30 thousand islands. Large bays include Georgian Bay in the northern part and Saginaw in Michigan.
The maximum depth reaches 229 m, and the average values fluctuate at the level of 59 m. The absolute height of the water surface is located at the level of 176 m above the ocean level.
This miracle of nature was formed in the last ice age. The entire northern part of the planet was covered with a thick layer of ice. The earth's crust could not withstand such stress and sank under the weight of the ice. During the melting of glaciers, water filled the resulting cavity.
Before the ice age, the bottom of the Huron was a lowland through which rivers flowed. Old channels can still be found at the bottom of the lake.
The protruding parts of the lake bottom are represented by the Alpena-Amberli ridge. Approximately 9,000 years ago, it rose above the surface of the lake and served as a resting place for migrating birds. Now it is completely hidden by water.
Salinity and composition of water
Lake Huron is in the world ranking of the largest freshwater reservoirs. The volume of water in the reservoir is 3540 km3. This is the 3rd place in the world in terms of the amount of fresh water in the reservoir.
In the northern part of the lake, the mineralization of water is higher than in the south. Average values are 160 mg/l. The bottom layer of water is up to 95% saturated with oxygen dissolved in water. In summer the water becomes clear up to 14 m. 91]
The water level rises in October and November. The norm is the water level at a height of 0.61 cm from the zero point. The maximum rise in water was observed in 1986. Then the water reached the mark of 1.8 m.
The minimum water level in the lake in winter. The norm is considered to be a decrease of up to 30 cm below the reference point. The lowest water fell in 1964. Then a figure of -42 cm below the zero point was recorded.
Relationship with the World Ocean
The area of the water collection basin for Lake Huron is 134 thousand km. sq. The average time of water renewal in a reservoir is 22.5 years. It belongs to the Atlantic Ocean basin, with which it is connected through a complex network of lakes, rivers, streams.
Some of the water in Huron comes from Lake Superior via the St. Marys River. Part of the debit is to Lake Michigan through the Strait of Mackinac.
The Mississippi, French, Spanish, and other smaller rivers and streams flow into the lake. The outflowing rivers are represented by only one St. Clair on the south coast of the reservoir. The Huron is connected to Erie by the St. Clair River and Lake, and the Detroit River.
Huron is located in a zone of sharply continental climate. The summers are hot here, and the winters are cold and severe. Seasons of the year are clearly expressed, changes are accompanied by temperature fluctuations. The maximum water temperature in the lake is observed in July and August.
The top layer warms up to +20 °C. In winter, the water temperature drops to 0 °C. Approximately 60% of the water surface is subject to freezing. The ice remains for about 80 days a year.
About 600 mm of precipitation falls annually. The nature of precipitation is rain and snow.
The best time to visit the lake is during the summer months. Winter in these parts is quite extreme due to the fact that there is a connection of 3 air currents from the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Sometimes they are mixed with the air mass of the Pacific Ocean.
Flora and fauna
The huge lake has a unique aquatic system. It unites all the Great Lakes into a single whole. The fish that live in the thickness of these waters are of the greatest natural importance.
The most numerous representatives of the fauna are:
- Light-finned zander. Another name for this fish is yellow zander. This name he received for the color of the scales. It can vary from olive brown to golden brown. There are fish with yellow scales. It is called light-feathered, since there is a white color of the fin on the lower part of the tail. Inhabits depths greater than 5 m.
- Rainbow and lake trout.
- Goiter vendace.
- Common Valek.
- American perch. Another name for yellow perch. This is a predatory fish with yellow-green scales on the sides. This species is larger than European perches. Inhabits the cold waters of North America. This is a bottom fish that feeds on small fish and crustaceans.
- Red-eyed perch.
- Small perch.
- Common sunfish.
- Herring whitefish.
- Lake char-kristivomer. It can reach a length of 1.5 m. It lives in cold and deep lakes. Refers to salmon species. Fishing for this fish is limited due to the danger of its extinction.
Most of these fish live only in the waters of Lake Huron. Fishing fish also have great importance for life: salmon, pike, chapter and others.
Animal world is represented by typical representatives for the northern lake ecosystem. Ondatras, Canadian beavers, wolves, bears, red lynx, Virgin deer live here. American validshneps, barracks, burgomyters, polar seagulls live in thickets on the shores of the lake.
In the forests surrounding the lake grow beech, oaks, nuts, maples, birch, a wide variety of shrubs and herbs.
Around Lake Huron is a large number of industrial enterprises, which require a large amount of water. These are mainly paper and metallurgical production.
In the manufacture of paper, a large amount of dirty water is formed, to clean which is quite problematic. The substances in the wastewater strongly changed the ecology of Lake Huron for the worse. Environmentalists stand out on the lake separate "concerns". They establishes an increased concentration of heavy metals, pathogenic microorganisms, toxic substances.
Over the past 100 years, the disappearance of some species of fish and mollusks previously inhabited in the lake has been registered. Not only the industry, but also the spread of mussels and sea flea contributed to the disappearance of species.
The situation with the quality of water complicates the fact that the lake is shipping. It scares tourists, although they could bring big income to restore the ecology of these places.
The government of Canada and the United States spends quite a few funds for the restoration of the lake.
The main support measures include:
- Running fry of different types of fish.
- Attempts to limit shipping.
- Strengthening control over wastewater discharge into a lake and rivers flowing into it.
- Restriction of the catch of rare fish species.
Natural Reserve was created on the island of Mcino. It can see historical buildings and natural attractions.
, the indulgent road of St. Lawrence is held along the water surface of the lake. Large ports in Canada are Sarnia, Defot Harbor, Midland. In the US, this is: Alpine, Rokport, Bay City. Navigation lasts 9 months. In the year from April to December. An interesting feature of the courts carrying cargo by Huron is their exhaustion.
Due to the fact that many gateways are narrow, ships are also narrow. And to ensure the possibility of transporting large volumes, they are pulled in length.
From the Canadian side, the large industrial center is Sanbury. Here are produced and metallurgical plants. The most populated part of Lake Huron is south.
On the Bruce Peninsula in the Gaordic Bay Bay there is a nuclear power plant. On the shores are developed food and light industry, agriculture. The fishing industry annually caresses 3000 tons of fish. Basically, the catch walks herring cig.
On the coast there are tourist bases, beaches, paid fishing.
Lake Huron is at a high location in the ranking of favorite seats of recreation in the northern part of the United States and the South of Canada. Here you can find entertainment for every taste: beaches with small sand and transparent water, berths for yachts, bays for fishermen.
Entertainment and recreation
South and East of the lake have a gentle shore, there are good beaches. In the north and west, the relief is represented in the form of hills and ripples.
There are many water parks on the shores of Guron. The cities in the summer there are a variety of festivals and holidays. Excellent beaches are between Port Huron and Makinau City. Fans of hiking can go on the picturesque paths among the rocks of the coast or in the forest near the reservoir.
It is advisable to visit the historical museum on the Embankment of Sidarville. It tells about the development of the territory by the colonizers.
The sights of Lake Huron include:
- the cliff Turnip Rock. It has a mushroom form growing from water. The rock was formed as a result of tidal erosion of water. The name happened from the word "turnip". The root of the appearance resembles the outline of the rock. Located in Michigan.
- Mcino Island. Here is the National Park, which includes Fort. Movement by car on the roads of the island under the ban.
- SU Saint Marie channel connects the system of the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. On the channel you can find islands, thresholds and river crossings. Along the channel there are a variety of historical buildings. In the summer, water excursions are often arranged.
- Flooded ships. Thanks to the transparent state of water, you can see big vessels flooded as a result of bad weather. These often organize underwater excursions, as well as dives with scuba.
Lake Huron is located in the zone of active atmospheric fronts, so many interesting features are due to the climatic factor.
In addition, some facts are taken from the history of these places:
- in 1913 G. As a result of the 16-hour storm, 10 ships sunk here, 20 threw ashore, more than 200 people died.
- The longest suspension bridge in the world stretches between the shores of the Strait of Machino. Its length - 2600 m. Wind speed on the bridge reaches 50 km / h. For fearful drivers, there is a free service that overtakes cars to the other side.
- More 25 thousand sunk in the aqueous punching. ships. This is told by estimates of specialists. According to statistics, the first vessel was crashed in 1679
- in the middle of a huge reservoir is the largest island of all existing on fresh waters. He is called Manitulin. Inside him spread out a small lake Manuit.
- The name of the island with the inner lake occurs on behalf of the Indian deity Manitu.
- Madonna was born in the city of Bay City on the Guron coast.
The value of the lake for Canada and the United States is huge. It feeds the inhabitants of his shores is not one millennium. There are huge stocks of natural and biological resources.
Video about Lake
Video review of Lake Huron: