Khiva. Attractions, photos with descriptions on the city map, history

The city of Khiva is one of the oldest and most beautiful in Uzbekistan, has a rich centuries-old history. The most of which are located on the territory of the ancient Fortress of Ichan-Cala, the city is attractive for tourists thanks to warm climate, picturesque surroundings and oriental flavor.

General Information

The city was founded more than 2500 years ago in the western part of Uzbekistan, in the Khorezm region. The climate belongs to the continental type; Dry and hot summer alternates with cold winters. The average temperature in the summer season is 25-30 degrees Celsius; In winter, it descends to -5 degrees. Rare rains take place predominantly in spring and autumn.

Hiva, the attractions of which are the World Heritage Monument and are protected by UNESCO, is one of the craft centers of the country. On the one hand, the city is surrounded by a rocky desert by Kyzylkum, known for his weak drawings near the Mountainside Bukantau, and on the other hand, a tug-sandy reserve.

You can get to the city on both airplane or train and by car, depending on the point of departure. There is no direct route to Khiva. An intermediate airport or station is located in Tashkent, as well as in Urgench. Flights to the plane are carried out 3 times a week.

Other routes include:

  • by aircraft to Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench or Fergana. From any city there are railway transport, as well as the ability to order a taxi to Hiva.
  • by train to Tashkent, in Urgench or nukus from Moscow (Kazan station), then a transplant to another train to Hiva.
  • by car. In this case, the route will run through Bukhara, Samarkand, Gizhduvan, Navoi and Kyzylkum.

It is also possible to order a local taxi (international services providing transport services, there is no). Its value is on average equal to 20,000 to 80,000 Kyrgyz Somov (18300 - 73300 rub.).

Save it possible, by ordering transfer from Tashkent station in advance or Urgench straight to the Hyiv Hotel - it will cost from $ 20 to $ 50, depending on Type of car and total man (maximum capacity - 7 people when ordering a minivan).

It should be mentioned and the opportunity to get to the tourist city on trolleybus from the city of Urgench. It is the cheapest of the available options, however, due to the small number of trolley buses in the park, there is a chance to chase a few hours in its expectation.

Historical Facts

Khiva, the attractions of which every year attract many tourists annually, has an ancient history, to this day, the honor and protected by local residents of the city and the modern generation. An exciting legend of the foundation of the city, as well as some other facts, will be interesting equally both the connoisseurs of the ancient world, and nothing sense in the history of amateurs.

These are:

  • According to legends, the city was founded by order of Sima - the son of mythical Noah, builder Ark. Khiva erected around a well with water of an extraordinary taste, which gave life to the craft center of ancient Uzbekistan. The well itself is preserved and is located on the territory of the fortress of Itchan-Kala.
  • The name of the city, according to legends, also arose thanks to the well - when Slim decided to quench thirst, he dug a deep hole, he threw the water to get drunk and shouted several times "Hay-Vak! Hay-Vak! ", What does" as well "mean. For a long time, the city was not called Hiva, but Hayivak.
  • in the X - XI centuries. Hiva was one of the most enlightened cities in Europe. In its territory, temples, observatory and other science centers were acted, some of which were preserved to this day.
  • In 1220, the city captured Genghis Khan, who during his stay in Khiva destroyed the many monuments of antiquity and temples. In fact, the city began to reinstate from the XIII century.
  • The Khiva Kingdom (the capital of which was the city of Khiva) was part of the three of the richest and famous Khanations of Central Asia from 1500 to 1900.

Before Islamization in 712, Khiva was the center of Zoroastrianism in Central Asia. From the famous people living in the city at different times, you can call the largest scientist Muhammad Al-Khorezmi, as well as the theologians of Al-Biruni, Nazhm Ad-Dean Cububa, Al-Kubra poet and an outstanding lawyer, doctor and philosopher Schihab Ad-Dean Abu Said Ibn Imran.

In all the time the existence of Hiva, the city, which served as an attractive place not only as a center of science and art, but also as a military fortress, Alexander Macedonian, Genghis Khan captured, Kuteyab Ibn Muslim and Amir Timur.

Memorial sites and attractions

Khiva, in comparison with other cities of Uzbekistan and the whole of Central Asia, has practically not changed since its last heyday period (beginning of the XVII century). Thanks to this, the sights of the city are predominantly in very good condition at a minimum of reconstructions. Almost all of them are open to tourists (with the exception of the cathedral mosque).

Kalta-minor tower

The tower is located on the territory of the inner city of Khiva, in the ITCHAN-KALA cytadel. The name of the minaret is translated from Uzbek as a "short tower". The construction was launched by Muhammad Amin Khan and originally the tower was planned as the highest minaret (80 m); However, at an altitude of 29 m, construction stopped.

Hiva. Inspecting the attractions in no way skip the Kalta-minor tower.

The following points are related to the features of the tower:

  • Date of construction - 1855
  • Unique decor on the walls of the minaret. The entire surface is covered with Maolean and glazed tiled white, blue and dark blue.
  • Arab paintings by decorative handwriting by Nastalik, narrating various stories and legends from the life of Amina-Khan and his environments.
  • Uniform distribution of drawings and decor throughout the surface area of ​​the minaret.
  • In 1996, a capital restoration was carried out in the tasks of which, in addition to refreshing the inscriptions, it was the restoration of natural colors inherent in the tower finish from the moment of its foundation.

To date, the entrance to the minaret is prohibited; Inspection is possible only outside the tower. Inside there is an unfavorant screw staircase, which should lead to a balcony from which Muzzin encourages believers on prayer. Unlike the outer walls, the inner surface of the tower is made without any painting, in the form of patterned brickwork.

AK-Sheikh Bobo sentigious tower

The building at one time belonged to the ak-sheikh bobo hermit ("White Sheikh"), which was a cervix tutor Mali. Initially, the tower served as a storage of weapons and powder; Subsequently, she turned into a room for receiving people. It is located on the territory of the inner fortress Kunya Ark.

Among the distinguishing features of this tower:

  • This is the most ancient building on the territory of Khiva. Separate parts of the building are dated XI - XII centuries. The architecture of the tower almost completely repeats the nature of the buildings of ancient Khorezm.
  • As a result of the Iranian invasion, the tower was almost completely destroyed in 1688. The building was reconstructed only in 1804.
  • The walls of the tower are completely devoid of any decor or patterns. The appearance of the bastion is ascetic and reminds people of its inhabitant - the great hermit.
  • A stunning view of Khiva opens from the upper platform (this is the only place in the city with the possibility of such a view).

Among other things, this watchtower has recently been subjected to spot reconstructions and repairs, so it is not always possible to visit its only premises. From the moment it was built in 1804, the watchpoint was connected by a wall to the fortress of Kunya Ark.

Itchan-Kala Fortress

Khiva, whose sights are open to visitors all year round, became known as a city-museum thanks to the ancient Itchan-Kala fortress. For its construction, according to legend, clay was used from the same places from which the prophet Muhammad built a mosque in Medina.

Impressive features of this inner city include:

  • The official start date for construction is 1598
  • The defensive walls surrounding the fortress are 8-10 m high, 5 m thick and over 6000 m long. To this day, the walls have been preserved in excellent condition, with virtually no reconstructions and repairs.
  • Every 30 meters there are watchtowers on the wall.
  • Entrance to the fortress - through any of the 4 gates, fortified with siege and shock weapons.
  • The relief of the moat, which was filled with water, is still visible along the entire perimeter.
  • Most of the fortresses were faced with majolica ceramics.
  • Separate buildings are decorated with woodcarving, which was one of the main types of art of Khorezm.

One of the features of the fortress is its compact building; on its territory there are about 60 buildings of historical value.

The entrance to the inner city is through the western gate - Ata-Darvaza. The patterns and ornaments that cover the walls of most buildings are in the form of climbing vines and leaves.

Kunya-Ark Citadel

It is called “a fortress within a fortress” – it is separated from the buildings of Itchan-Kala by high walls. In translation, the name means “Old Fortress”. Initially, the citadel was intended for receptions, a harem, a mosque, and also an office. Kunya-Ark also served as the khan's residence until the overthrow of the Khiva Khan by the Bolsheviks in 1920. Supporting date of construction - 1680s.

The other features include:

  • Many of the preserved old buildings of the XV - XVII centuries.
  • The most complex finishing and facing of both the external and internal surfaces of buildings using white-blue majolica and multicolor paintings.
  • Doors leading to the Hanskaya Residence hall are framed by a carved ghanchy - decorative wood carvings.

The last full-scale restoration was carried out at the beginning of the XIX century, which affected the mainly wooden decoration of buildings and columns. Before the fortress itself, there is a square on which military parades and teachings were held; It was also a place for public executions.

Zindan or Prison is adjacent to the eastern wall of the fortress. Most of the premises are for example, a mint, a receiving Khan, workshops - are available for visiting tourists.

Madrasa Schools

In the city, many special educational institutions have been preserved, which were an analogue of spiritual seminaries for Muslims. In total, they are already more than 20 - some have been preserved in their original form, others have been subjected to significant reconstructions in the XIX century.

The list of the most famous spiritual schools can be represented as a table:

Name Year of construction Location who built Architecture Features
Madrasa Shergozhazi Khan1718 - 1726Center ITCHAN -Kala, opposite Mausoleum Mahmuda.Chergozhazi-Khan captives captured during a raid on the Horacean.yard with 4 vaulted rooms, lobby, lecture hall.
Madrasa Abdullah Khan1855in the western side of the AK mosque.Mother Abdullah-Khan in memory of the Son.4 towers were built around the perimeter of the building.
Madrasa Arab Muhammad-Khan1838in the center of the ITCHAN-KALA.Arab Muhammad Khan in honor of the formation of Khiva the capital of Khorezma.Two-storey building with cylindrical towers in the corners.
Madrasa Islam-Khoja1910on the side of the Minaret Islam-Khoja.Advisor Asfandiyar-Khan Islam Khoji.42 small keys, big dome hall.
Madrasa Khoj Marama1839next to the Western Wall of the Juma Mosque.Allakuli-Khan advisor.Asymmetric building consisting of 12 small cells.
Madrasa Khojamberdybia1834next to the East Gate of Palvan Darwaz.Allakuli KhanSquare dome-hall, as well as 16 keys.
Madrasa Yakubby Khoji1873West Mausoleum Mahmoud.Khoju merchant merchant.The building has a form of a rectangle, to which the domestic hall is adjacent
Madrasa Kutlug-Murad-Inak1804 - 1812The eastern part of the ITCHAN-KALA fortress.According to the legend, Uncle Allakuli Khan was built.One of the only two-storey medrese in Khiva.

Also another 6 educational institutions are available in the city of Khiva, outside the fortress of Itchan-Kala. In most schools, the facade is made in Bukhar style, with the observance of symmetry and built in the corners of buildings towers. The outer walls are decorated with facing bricks and majolica with geometric and floral ornament.

Other minarets

In addition to the famous Kalta-minor tower, there are 14 minarets in Khiva. Some of them are built on the same line (repeating the movement of the Sun from the east to the west) with a distance of 200 meters. The highest construction of the old chival is the ISlam Khoja tower, the height of which is 57 m.

among other memorable Buildings should be specified:

  • Minaret Juma Mosque. It was built in the XVI century, collapsed in the XVII century. And in the same period was renovated (the last repair was carried out in the 1970s). The tower has one of the largest bases (9.5 m in diameter).
  • Minaret Said Nyuba Shalikarbay. Attached to the mosque of the same name. The tower has an unusual cylindrical shape.
  • Minaret Palwan Kary. The construction of the tower was repeatedly postponed due to political strife in Khiva; Finally was completed at the beginning of the XX century.

There is a legend that the oldest Mountains - Juma Mosque - was built on the spot even more ancient tower, the remains of which are found on the excavations in modern times. The main facing material of the majority of minarets is a burning brick; Decorative drawings are made using multicolored glazed tiles.

Mausoleum Pakhlavan-Mahmoud

According to the legend, Pakhlavan-Mahmoud, a local poet, possessed not only a gift to poetry, but also the ability to heal the disease. The local population worsages him as a patron of the city.

Initially, the decoration of the architectural complex was rather modest; However, later, with the growth of pilgrimage and tourist flows in Khiva, Mausoleum acquired the largest dome in the territory of the whole city, and the walls of the buildings were turned by masters-architectural in the work of art.

According to engraving on its stone gates, the mausoleum was built in 1701. The construction was led by the master Addin Muhammad Murad; Maitolike cladding dates from 1825

to other interesting features of mausoleum include:

  • , the use of copper lattice winds and niches, which was valued in those times on Gold weight.
  • Rich ornamentation, both the external facade of the building and interior.
  • Khanaka (shelter for a dervish), the roof of which is a high double dome - one of the symbols of Hiva.

Hiva, the attractions of which are compactly located on the territory of the ITCHAN-KALA fortress keeps the memory of the departed members of the Khan family. To the right of the entrance to the mausoleum is the funeral crypt, where the tombstones of Anusha-Khan, Abulgazi-Khan, as well as the grave of Muhammad Ramin-Khan.

Said Allauddin's Mausoleum

The monument was erected at the beginning of the XIV century. And thus, is one of the oldest architectural buildings. However, it is known that at least 4 global reconstruction of the building was carried out, the latter of which was carried out in the 1900s. The complex of the Mausoleum includes not only the tomb of the Sufi Sheikh Said Allauddin, but also the famous Hivinsky Khan Said Muhammad.

Despite the lack of catching parts, the mausoleum is interesting to the unusual decor of the tombstones themselves - color majolica (mostly ultramarine color), with which many symmetric and asymmetric are posted compositions.

Islam Khoja

complex among all architectural structures, the ISlam Khoja complex is the most modern - its construction refers to the first years of the XX century. Its main feature is the contrast of buildings as in the amount (on its territory there are also the highest building - Minaret Islam Khoja - and the lowest - Madrasa) and in ornament.

The facades of the buildings are made in the style of medieval architecture. The walls of the buildings are decorated with icing and carved Ganges, made by the famous architects vigor and thinbergan Haji.

Tash-Hauli Palace

The main palace complex of Khiva Khanov includes several residential neighborhoods - harem, the courtroom, the Khan, and a place for negotiation and receptions of guests. The palace was built for 8 years (1830 - 1838).

Among the features of the complex, it is worth mentioning:

  • rivalry among concubines who might harbor a grudge against more fortunate girls).
  • The ceilings and walls are painted with brown-red paints and decorated with majolica canvas.
  • The palace contains elements of a defensive structure (in particular, watchtowers in the corners).

Administrative quarters and courtrooms look less flashy - the walls are made of burnt bricks without decorative drawings and ornaments. Aivans are located throughout the palace - vaulted rooms, completely open on one side.

Caravanserai of Alla-Kuli Khan

Completely rectangular building is devoid of decor; the courtyard of the caravanserai (a kind of hotel) is decorated only with clay-gypsum whitewash, and clay-adobe plaster was used to finish the outer walls. The building was erected in 1832 and has hardly been restored since then; the whole complex consists of 104 hujras or rest rooms for guests.

Some of them - usually on the 1st floor - were used to store belongings and goods. Also, the caravanserai was used as a bazaar; but even today the area next to the complex is the focus of souvenir shops and merchants.

Juma Mosque

The largest Friday mosque in Khiva is located in the center of Itchan-Kala fortress. Unlike mosques in other Muslim cities of the world, the Juma Mosque in Khiva has a non-standard architecture - it is surrounded by a massive wall, has 3 entrances and no entrance arches or portals.

Such a decision is justified by the desire of Abdurahman Mihtar (on whose donations this complex was built) to restore the oldest mosque of the 10th century.

Inside the main prayer hall there are over 200 columns of different heights and framed with different ornaments. This hall itself is a museum of the history of art of Khiva - here you can see samples of ancient woodcarving, as well as mosaic compositions on the walls.

Other sights of Khiva

The city is rich in interesting places outside the ancient fortresses. So, on the territory of Khiva there is a unique museum of the Avesta - the sacred book for Zoroastrianism. The surviving sacred texts also help to explore the features of the life of the ancient peoples of Central Asia before the advent of Islam. The total number of exhibits in the museum is over 150. The entrance fee is $3-5.

The art of making puppets in Khiva is still valued as it was in the 6th-8th centuries; tourists have the opportunity to visit a unique puppet theater, in the productions of which traditional plots from the mythology of Uzbekistan appear. Also, visitors will be able to watch live the difficult process of creating dolls, and, of course, buy one for themselves as a keepsake. The average price is $ 5-7, the address is st. Mustaqillik, 12.

Among other historical buildings, we can mention the baths of Anush Khan, erected in the 17th century. not far from the Ak-Mosque (on the territory of the Itchan-Kala fortress). The buildings have a complex system of semi-underground structures that provided heat to the washing rooms. This is the only architectural complex of Khiva, located almost underground.

National cuisine and restaurants

You can get acquainted with traditional Uzbek cuisine both in restaurants located directly on the territory of the old fortress, and in the outer city. Traditional dishes that every tourist should try include tukhum barak (vareniki with egg filling), green spaghetti with herbal broth and the famous Khorezm pilaf.

Among the restaurants it is worth highlighting:

  • Khorezm Art Restaurant - the menu includes a variety of cuisines of the world (including vegetarian dishes). There are outdoor terraces. Located near the Juma Mosque.
  • Zainab National House. In addition to meals, guests are entertained with folk music and dancing. Address - st. Pakhlavon Mahmud.
  • Khiva Moon. An abundance of meat dishes (kazan-kebab, Uzbek roast, fried lagman), as well as confectionery (Uzbek caramel, pashmak, sweet brushwood and real halva). Location - st. Polvon Corey, 101A.

Despite the fact that there are a huge number of monuments and architectural masterpieces in Khiva, the most interesting objects can be seen in 2-3 days. Experienced tourists recommend booking hotel rooms located in the historical zone of the city - this will save time on the road for those people who do not want to miss anything interesting from the sights of Uzbekistan.

Video about the city of Khiva

Khiva. Beautiful legends. This must be seen in Khiva: