Interesting facts about the last the continent discovered by Europeans, Australia, are countless. This continent is more than a separate state, it is a kind of realm of nature, which has no analogues. The facts about Australia are surprising, because only its size is equal to the distance between Moscow and London, and the area of one agricultural farm in the country is larger than Belgium.
Australia: location, brief history
The continent lies in the southern part of the planet. Australia, with its area of 7,692,024 sq. km, only 24% less than the whole of Europe (10,180,000 sq. km).
Interesting facts about Australia are associated with a long history with Britain. Until now, the symbolic head of the Commonwealth of Australia is Queen Elizabeth II. But the actual power belongs to the prime minister and the governor general.
During the history of Australia, Europeans discovered the mainland twice:
- The first discoveries of Australia happened during the colonial fever of the 17th century, when all European countries were looking for sources of gold. Then, in 1606, a Dutch ship moored for the first time near the coast of an unknown land. The captain, Willem Janszoon named the mainland "New Holland". But Holland was unable to organize the management of new territories. Therefore, when a year later, the flotilla of the Spaniard Pedro Quirosa made a landing on the Vanuatu archipelago, suggesting that they had discovered the southern continent, the existence of which had been assumed since antiquity, they also called this continent - the Southern Land of the Holy Spirit.
- Absolutely new systematic knowledge about the mainland was provided by the expedition of the British James Cook, who is rightfully considered the first explorer in 1769. He described the east coast in detail, announced the possibility of settling a new land. And from that time on, the active colonization of the new mainland by Britain began for the next 2 centuries.
According to recent anthropological and geological studies, it is known that the Chinese were the pioneers here. The first sea settlements of Asians settled here in 1400
The existence of a social system on the continent has always been associated with the British crown. During the years 1788-1901. it was a colony of the British Empire, and from 1901 until today - a federation that is part of the British Commonwealth.
Geology of Australia
Australia, Fr. New Guinea and Tasmania are the visible surface of the Australian Plate. Australia itself is a flat landscape (95%), only 600 m above sea level with mountains in the southeast.
The relief of Australia is quite poor - it is a flat continent, on which, due to the high dryness of the air, little grows. According to the latest geological studies, the landscape of this continent has practically changed over the millennia of its existence.
Its geological development is monotonous, and the mountains, the Great Dividing Range, are only in the east. The highest peaks of Australia - Mount Kosciuszko and Townsend have a height of 2228 m and 2209 m respectively. Australia is a continent without active volcanoes.
The absolute part of the continent is occupied by deserts, with low precipitation and large reserves of inland waters. Such a water system in some places provides low-growing vegetation.
- The Great Desert.
- Gibson Desert.
- The Great Victoria Desert.
In the expanses of the continent there are small tropical grasslands, where huge herds of sheep graze. Australia has good reserves of inland waters, so crops of many cereals grow successfully on the mainland. These water reserves also offset the country's frequent periods of drought.
But the total flow of water is still the smallest among all continents - only 350 sq. km. km. This level of humidity is insufficient for the exuberant development of the flora, and can rarely protect against fires in the steppe.
Interesting facts about Australia relate to its water system. For such a huge continent, it is poorly developed and poorly replenished. This provokes a rapid drying up of tributaries, lakes and even major rivers.
The largest rivers flow down from the mountains in the east, and spread through narrow cracks. Partially they are used for the operation of hydroelectric power stations. Also, due to the lack of water, reservoirs have been built throughout the waterbed of the Murray River, which are used for industrial purposes.
Murray - the longest river in Australia (2375 km), flows from the highest mountain Kosciuszko. Its sources of nourishment are rain and snow from the peaks of the Australian mountains. Deeper on the continent, its tributaries, the Murrumbidgee and the Darling, develop. In the summer and spring periods, the rivers become a little deeper in the flat part of the continent, and there are enough of them to sail large ships.
In winter, when precipitation becomes much less, all rivers become shallow, some break up into independent reservoirs. A sufficient amount of water is held in Murray and Marrambiji throughout the year.
In the north and west, water ducts are very small, their nutrition occurs only due to the few rains. Therefore, the aquifers of these rivers often change regardless of the time of year, and there are no constant stock and a pronounced river in such rivers as a cocker cry and daamantine.
Numerous lakes feed on precipitation, so they often have a strong before the water level: in the summer they dry out so much that they are solonial depressions, at the bottom of which are formed by 1.5 m salts.
Popular Australian Lakes, north of the Bay Spencer spreads around the continent. Their peculiarity is salted water - confirms the hypothesis of scientists that these rivers are relatively recently separated from the ocean. Numerous swamps occupy an important place in the water system.
National Wealth of Australia - its mineral resources and polymetals, according to calculations, their number is 20 times higher compared with other continents.
Australia takes the 1st place for the extraction of iron ore, its mines are equipped throughout the mainland, but the greatest number is in the east. Gold mining is best developed in the West, although his small deposits open everywhere.
Australia has a lot of bauxite reserves, zirconium, uranium, manganese, diamonds, oil and natural gas. From non-metallic fossils, industrial mining of limestone, clay, asbestos, mica and sand are developed here.
The soil of the mainland relative to the poor and non-blinking: from red, gray-brown, brown and red soil boom in Australia, the ideal device was found only for the latter. The brown-red soil is located in the north, in the area of the rainforest, and there are well growing wheat varieties. In this place the main industrial sowing of the state is concentrated.
Climate and weather in Australia by months
The territory of Australia covers 3 climatic belts:
According to Köppen's classification, the continent has 10 climatic zones.
Therefore, the temperature (° C) on the coasts differs depending on the time of year:
|January||+ 36||+ 22||+ 26||+ 32|
|February||+ 30||+ 24||+ 27||+ 30|
|Mart||+ 30||+ 24||+ 28||+ 28|
|April||+ 30||+ 18||+ 25||+ 20|
|May||+ 29||+ 25||+ 24||+ 17|
|June||+ 25||+ 15||+ 17||+ 20|
|July||+ 25||+ 12||+ 19||+ 19|
|August||+ 25||+ 15||+ 18||+ 18|
|September||+ 30||+ 23||+ 23||+ 25|
|October||+ 33||+ 25||+ 24||+ 23|
|November||+ 35||+ 24||+ 27||+ 20|
|December||+ 30||+ 25||+ 26||+ 28|
The precipitation falls very unevenly. Their largest quantity falls in a tropical wet climate, in the eastern part of the continent. About 1500 mm of precipitation per year is formed here.
their lowest indicator - in the central and western part of Australia - here there is only 300 mm of precipitation per year. In this part, the rains may not go for years, or the entire annual level of rain is falling in a few days of pouring rains.
Commonwealth Australia has its own monetary currency - the Australian dollar.These money became the first plastic banknotes in the world.
according to statistics 2016, Australia occupies the 55th place in the number of population - 24.5 million citizens. According to the same data, the overall population of Europe in 2016 was 741.4 million - it is 30 times more.
The detection of the continent is unevenly distributed over all 6 states and 2 mainland territories. The largest number of the country's population is concentrated in the Australian capital territory (including the capital Canberra) - it has a density of 150 people / sq. km.
in the XVIII century. The mainland became actively populated by Europeans, although mostly for 2 centuries it was either thieves and prostitutes expelled here by the British authorities, or gold kits and farmers. According to state accounting of the British crown, more than 1 million people arrived in the territory of the territory of the territory of the territory.
also, during the active colonization of the mainland by Europeans, residents about. Tasmania were exterminated. According to statistics in 2007, 22% of the Australian population is like prisoners.
before the opening and active settlement of the continent by Europeans in the XVIII century, the local population, the aboriginal tribes, was the number of about 45 TIS. Anthropological and ethnographic studies are adjusted that these tribes have drastically differ in terms of language, culture and traditions.
All Australian Aborigines anthropologists are divided into 3 types: Murray, Carpenarian and Barrinean. According to the theory of anthropogenesis, the appearance of a person here occurred about 40 tis years ago.
During the XX Art. The inclusion of the number of people's population has increased dramatically twice: after World War I, the number of arrivals increased 4 times; And after World War II - in 2. According to the ethnic indication, the most numerical among the population of Australia are the descendants of the British, Irish, New Zealandsev, Italians, the Netherlands, Greeks and Germans.
The absolute majority of the country's population lives on the east coast - in the most moderate of all 10 climatic zones. The trend of the settlement decreases with the promotion of the mainland - already 200 km from the coast begins, and unleashed terrain and deserts, which Australians call "Outback", they make up 70% of the total mainland.
Unified State language - Australian English. English linguistics recognizes it as one of the dozens of literary English dialects.
Interesting facts about Australia are surprised by the number of local languages and dialects. In Australia, aborigines use their tribal languages, the number of which exceeds 200 varieties. This is the highest indicator of language diversity on one territory.
50 interesting facts about Australia
Interesting facts about Australia, which few people know:
- The name "Australia" has a Latin origin And means "southern".
- December in Australia is the first summer month. Therefore, the new year of Australians meet in the summer.
- From the end of the twentieth century. In Australia, a question arose about the replenishment of fresh water reserves, so the limits of its use were introduced in the country.
- Immigration processes and obtaining the right to accommodation in Australia are now popular to this day. According to statistics, the largest number of people who want to live here arrive from Britain, China and India.
- Construction of the modern capital of Australia - Canberra specifically began in 1908. The emergence of this city served as a conflict between two big cities, Sydney and Melbourne, who did not want to give way to be called the capital.
- There are high taxes in Australia (most often it is half of salaries) and many fines: they are fined even for a non-appearance of elections for a disrespectful reason, and because of the murder of a poisonous snake.
- The universal electoral law of a woman here was previously received before Europe - in 1902 this is the second country after New Zealand, which emancipated the rights of women.
- Australia claims the territory of Antarctica, namely the Australian Antarctic part.
- In the Australian Alps, the snow level at times exceeds its number in the Swiss Alps.
- Officially, the Commonwealth Australia has 3 flags: common state, and still flags of continental residents and the islanders Torresov Strait.
- for 64 years, until 1902, it was forbidden to swim on public beaches during the daytime.
- Today, Australia's aborigines constitute only 1.5% of the total population of the country.
- Australians, British origin, here is called "Pom", "Pomi". The etymology of the name is not established, but it is customary to associate with nicknames of jailers in the past.
- 90% of the country's total population lives along the coast.
- The percentage of immigrants from the Soviet Union in Australia is extremely small.
- A total of 12 Tis representatives of the Flora and the fauna of Australia, 9 TISs are unique local species.
- Despite the variety of forest plants, in Australia, only 6% of the territory is covered with forests.
- Australia belongs to 3 water systems - 7% waters entered into the pool of the Pacific Ocean, 33% in Indian, and 60% are the fields of internal drain. But the number of these reserves is still a meager amount for such a huge continent.
- Fraser island is the largest sandy island in the world.
- The greatest temperature difference in the center of the mainland, in the city of Alice Springs. In the summer, throughout the day, the temperature varies from + 45 per day, up to - 6 at night.
- In the mill there are strict fines for rabbits.
- at the end of the XIX century. He was brought to the continent camel. This animal, with its endurance, greatly helped to explore and explore the mainland in its remote desert regions.
- When entering the country, strict customs environmental control is in place - even the soil is cleaned from the soles of shoes. All for the sake of preserving the unique flora and fauna of the mainland.
- It was found that on about. Tasmania has the cleanest air in the world.
- Due to the unique ecological system, today 64 wetlands are among the important wetlands of the aquatic world.
- The flora is dominated by dry-loving and evergreen crops: cereals, different varieties of eucalyptus, acacia and bottle tree.
- On the continent only trees with strong root systems survive. Sometimes, they have to look for moisture at a depth of 30 m underground.
- With the onset of colonization, European plants began to be brought to the continent. Grain crops (corn, wheat, barley, oats), cotton and grapes have taken root here.
- There are 60 zones for growing grapes and producing wine.
- During the colonization of the mainland by Europeans, such animals as the Tasmanian wolf became extinct.
- Australia has a very strong decentralization of government. Each state has its own driver's license model and conditions for obtaining one.
- Literally, the national pride of the Australians are products with the logo of a yellow kangaroo in a green triangle. This is a proven quality mark, which is awarded after a very rigorous quality control of the products.
- Kangaroo meat is a local alternative to any other type of meat.
- "Make Harold Holt" is a local idiom that means to disappear without a trace. This expression appeared in 1967 and became national. It comes from the unexplained disappearance of the then Prime Minister while sailing in Melbourne Bay. The reasons for his disappearance have not been established, but there are 2 opinions among the local population - he was either eaten by a shark or stolen by Soviet spies.
- National folklore and legends often mythologize the impregnable and unexplored deserts of central Australia.
- Due to the scorching sun and dry climate, most of the fauna of Australia does not have particularly bright colors.
- UNESCO protects 16 historic and natural sites in Australia.
- 80% of the adult population gambles. This is the highest rate in the world.
- The social paradox of the country: the sports infrastructure is very well developed here, but 30% of the population suffers from obesity.
- The average Australian drinks 83 liters of beer a year.
- The design of the Sydney Opera House depicts an ideal sphere. The creator was inspired by the orange slices.
- In Australia, sheep lives more than people 3.5 times. This is due to the well-developed sector of the economy and high wool exports.
- According to 2016 data, Australia has a kangaroo population of 45 million, which is again more than the most Australians.
- Dwarf sharks can be long just 15 cm.
- There are mountain in Australia, a name that is disappointment. She was called in 1824, when its openers were disappointed with landscapes from her top.
- The largest Greek diaspora is living in Melbourne outside Greece.
- According to official data, there are 10 tis beaches on the continent.
- Australians invented their version of football (Australian Rules Football).
- In the southwest of the country there is a pink lake Hillier (Hillier).
- The Anthem of Australia is the same as the United Kingdom.
Interesting facts about Australia animals
Interesting facts about the fauna of Australia are fascinating:
- There are no monkeys in Australia.
- Australian animal, Koala is a night and very lazy little animal, he sleeps for 20 hours a day. Today, about 700 species of Koal are known.
- Koal has the same finger pad printings as people.
- Koala feed exclusively by eucalyptus leaves, and almost never drink water.
- Young leaves of eucalyptus are poisonous. Therefore, koala eat only old leaves.
- The symbol of Australia is a kangaroo, but an emu is drawn on the coat of arms of Australia.
- Kangaroo moves only with the help of jumps, and its speed of movement is 20 km / h.
- EMU is very friendly and curious animals.
- The most dangerous creatures in Australia are snakes, jellyfish and stone fish.
- 200 Tis animals in Australia are unique.
Most local animals cannot be found outside the continent. Australia is inhabited by most of the endemics, unique animals of the mainland.
- 83% of the maxo of the feeding on;
- 90% of the water world;
- 89% reptile;
- 93% of amphibians.
The most popular representatives of the Australian fauna are the walls, echids, koalas, wings and kangaroo. Among the birds are worldwide fame found Kukabara, Emu and Kakada.
Extremely high ecological safety of Australia has its reasons. On the continent, the war was literally a survival war with rabbits brought here, for which the local climate was very favorable for existence.
A large population of rabbits in 1907 was resolved by the extermination of animals with a special virus and the construction of a wire fence 5614 km long in the state of Western Australia. In 1932, the situation repeated itself, but with a huge emu population.
Another animal brought to the mainland in 1866, the camel, successfully adapted to Australia. Now more than 1 million feral camels live in the country. The export of Australian camels is very developed with Saudi Arabia.
Interesting facts about the plants of Australia
The flora of Australia is peculiar, the researchers explain this by a long isolated period of development, as a result of which a separate floristic kingdom was formed. On the territory of the continent, 75% of plants are classified by scientists as endemic. Most of the diverse fauna (4395 species) is concentrated in the state of Queensland, where the climatic conditions are the most suitable.
Most of the vegetation is found in the north and northwest of the continent. Because of the northwest monsoons, tropical forests grow here: ramps, ficuses, palm trees, bamboo is rare.
Mangroves - evergreen mold forests - grow in places from a flat landscape, in the tidal part of the coast. Most of Australia's trees are adapted to survive long droughts and have remarkably well developed root systems.
Young botanists will also like interesting facts about Australia. Here there are the same plants as in South America, South Africa and on the islands of the Malay Archipelago. By this, scientists confirm the hypothesis of land connections between the continents in the distant past.
The closer to the center of the mainland - the hotter and drier. Therefore, the vegetation here is monotonous - dry and thorny shrubs (scrubs), mainly eucalyptus and acacia. These are usually stunted thickets up to 1.5 m high.
Interesting facts about the flora also concern the lush tropics and subtropical forests. Because of them, Australia is known as a country of exotic plants, and not just deserts.
Such a plant kingdom in the east and southeast of Australia is possible because of the high rainfall. The most common tree in Australia is the eucalyptus. It grows everywhere. Sometimes eucalyptus trees grow up to 150 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 10 m.) Interesting facts about Australia: