Interesting facts about Africa. Geography for children 2-5-7 class. Video

Africa hides a lot of interesting things. Some facts indicate that it was here that the first signs of human life were found. In many countries, the mainland retains a low standard of living. Animal and vegetable world speaks of the uniqueness of the continent.

Where did the name "Africa" ​​originated from. An interesting story for children

Interesting facts about Africa indicate several options for the origin of the right of the continent. Most often there is a version arising from the culture of Arab countries and its impact on the living conditions of Africans. Scientists suggest that the mainland is named after Lion, since "Afros" in Arabic denotes this beast.

According to the second version of the best half mining in the old days, important people gave. This part of the nazis is an ancient population called the lion's share ("Afros"), since it was transferred to the specially revered fellow tribesmen. Such people had popularity among the members of the tribe, as well as the Lion in forest animals.

In accordance with the 3rd AFAR theory, the Phoenician denotes dust. Carthage's village people worked in the field of agriculture, which was often dealt with sand, dust, mud. After the inhabitants of Rome in the northern part of the African continent and capturing the Carthage, they called the settlement by Africa. After some time, the word "afar" began to be called the whole mainland.

This name meant "land in dust".

According to the next version, Africa got its name from the word "ifri", which is translated from the Berber language as "cave". Africans meant cavemen.

I. Efremov (famous historian and archaeologist) relates the appearance of the name of the continent to ancient Egypt (“afros” - a foamy country). Certain waves join in the waters of the Mediterranean Sea and turn into foam off the African coast.

The size of the African continent

In terms of area, Africa ranks second after Eurasia. Its value is 29200 million km2. But together with the islands that are located off the coast of the continent - 30300 million km2.

On the western side, the mainland surrounds the Atlantic Ocean. The waters of the Mediterranean Sea adjoin the northern part of Africa. The Red Sea and the Indian Ocean flow around the northeast and east side of the continent.

The population reaches approximately 1.1 billion people. There are 55 countries here. The vast majority of them belong to the poorest countries on the planet. On the mainland, approximately 70% of people live in conditions of catastrophic poverty.

Geographical characteristics of the continent

Almost the entire African continent is covered with plains. There are a few lowlands along the coast. The Atlas Mountains are located in the northwestern part of the continent. The Sahara occupies northern Africa. The Ethiopian highlands are located in the east, the East African plateau - in the southeast. The Cape and Dragon Mountains are located in the region of the extreme south.

The highest point of the mainland is the volcano Kilimanjaro, and the lowest is located in about. Assal (157 m below sea level).

The following rivers flow through African lands:

  • Nile (the longest river in the world): 6852 km, flows from south to north;
  • Niger (located in the western part of the continent);
  • Congo (central Africa);
  • Orange, Limpopo, Zambezi (flow in the southern side of the African continent).

Rivers are full of water only in the equatorial region, since there is a lot of precipitation. In Africa there is Lake Chad, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Victoria, Superior. In this area there is increased solar radiation, so the continent is called the hottest. The highest air temperature reached in 1922 in Libya and amounted to +58°C.

There are evergreen equatorial and mixed deciduous-evergreen forests here. Mixed coniferous deciduous and severe evergreen forests, as well as shrubs deserve special attention. There are savannah, parel, deserts, semi-deserts. In nature there are mountains and a plateau.

The diversity of cultures and peoples

Africa has become the second home for diverse tribes with various lifestyles, life and customs.

The main tribes include:

  • Hamer;
  • Nuba;
  • Dink;
  • Mbuti;
  • Fulbe;
  • Oromo;
  • BONGO;
  • Bambara.

Recently, representatives of different nationalities are focused on commodity-money relations. However, the main occupation remains food mining, the reserves of which will save from sudden hunger. The northern part of the African continent is inhabited by Arabs and Berbers. For all the time spent on the mainland, they left the modern population of customs, culture and skills.

In the desert, people almost do not live. But in this area there are nomads with camels.

The culture of Africans has long lost its original appearance. In some spheres of life, people acquired the behavior of the inhabitants of neighboring settlements. A young man is obliged to buy a girl from a mother with his father. Only after that he is entitled to marry it. Most often, domestic animals use as a ransom. But in modern conditions, they are also paying for money.

marked marriage exclusively at night in full moon. The moon determine the quality of marriage. If the month shines brightly - newlyweds will have many children and money. If the moon dull is not good.

Shamans occupy the main place in the life of Africans. The sorcerers are treated, bless, are present at weddings and funerals.

The future wife should come home to a young man, taking a dowry. Marriage is allowed from 13 years. A man is considered the best warrior and a hunter if there are many scars on his body.

World Records of Africa

Rating of the main records of the mainland:

  1. , the sugar is considered the largest desert on the planet. Its area is 8 million km2.
  2. The largest river of the continent is Congo.
  3. Neil is the largest river on Earth (6671 km).
  4. African elephant is the largest mammal. It weighs about 5,700 tons, an increase in an adult animal - 3.20 m.
  5. Giraffe - an animal with the highest growth (5.86 m).
  6. Dwarfishes belongs to the small mammal itself. The tail length is 2.4-3.0 cm, and the torso is 3.5-5.2 cm. Such a shrew weighs approximately 1.5 g.
  7. The highest air temperature in the world (+58°C) has been recorded here.
  8. The mamba is considered the most poisonous land snake.

Religions and beliefs

Interesting facts about Africa testify to the presence of different beliefs and religions on the mainland.

Along with Islam (the main religion of Africa), local residents revere various creatures and objects:

Name of belief Description
Worship of the head of the tribe (shaman or sorcerer)The leader must possess abilities that an ordinary inhabitant cannot show: cause precipitation, talk with the spirits of the dead.
Ancestor worshipThis cult is very common among the tribes engaged in agriculture and cattle breeding. The African believes that the spirit of a deceased ancestor protects in everyday life from problems.
Animal worshipThe snake and leopard are the most popular.
Worship of thingsIf the object of veneration (bush, stone, sculpture) helps to achieve the desired result, gifts are presented to him. If the situation does not change, then choose another thing.
VoodooA religion that allows people to access spirits. Sorcerers cure diseases, relieve curses. Sometimes voodoo is used in the field of black magic.
IbogaThis religion is named after a hallucinatory plant. People are sure that after consuming such a plant, the soul frees the body and can come into contact with the spirits of animals and plants.

The highest mountain

In the northeastern part of Tanzania is the highest mountain in the entire African continent - Kilimanjaro. Located near the equator. It is covered with vegetation that grows mainly in other areas. The snow cap is melting fast here. The prerequisite for this phenomenon was global warming.

It often rains in this area, the weather is unstable, the air temperature at different altitudes varies greatly. At the base of the volcano, the temperature is +30°C. At an altitude after 3000 m and further reaches -15°C.

Climatic zones existing on mountain slopes:

  • alpine desert;
  • tropical forest;
  • mountain tundra;
  • summit glaciers.

The country with the highest amount of pyramids

According to the results of studies, it has been established that the number of pyramids in Sudan exceeds their number in Egypt. Earlier it was believed that in the Egyptian land the most pyramidal structures are located. However, Sudan became the leader in this matter.

A significant part of the buildings appeared after close interaction with Egypt, which began with the emergence of Egyptian history. Residents of Egypt erected churches up to South Sudan. In the area of ​​this state there are approximately 200 pyramids. A total is about 255 buildings.

Location and main regions of Africa

All African states are distinguished by originality and an unusual worldview.

But between them there are certain similarities that contribute to the division of the continent to the regions:

  • South Africa;
  • Northern;
  • Eastern;
  • Western;
  • Central (tropical).

The western part of Africa occupies the main position in the number of countries, most of which have access to the world Ocean. But the south and the north of the mainland - the areas occupying the largest area on the mainland. East Africa has distinguished itself to an increase in GDP per person. The center of the continent occupies the most and economically weak countries of the world.

Sometimes scientists mention another area: Southeast Africa, where 4 countries include:

  • Zimbabwe.
  • Malawi.
  • Zambia.
  • Mozambique.

Africa - the second continent of the world in terms of population

Interesting facts about Africa are countless. In the number of population in 1.1 billion, Africa occupies a 2nd place in the world by crowded. The population of the mainland is rapidly increasing.

Today, Nigeria is located on the number of 7 inhabitants.

But by 2050 its displacement is assumed to 450. According to modern estimates by this time, about 2.3 billion people will live on the continent. Most children are born in Africa's States. Niger is at the very beginning of the list.

Most countries in Africa were colonies

almost the entire African continent (except Liberia and Ethiopia) was under the rule of foreign countries. Belgium, Germany, France, Spain and other countries were proud to lead Africa, not having the approval of local residents. In 1884-1885 These states divided African lands at the Berlin Conference.

After the Great Patriotic War, independence and occupied territories returned to the states of Africa. Now there are only a couple of islands and a small area on the Moroccan coast, which are part of foreign countries.

More than a quarter of all countries in the world are located in Africa

More than 25% of the inhabitants of 196 countries live on the mainland. There are 54 countries in Africa that have gained full independence. These states are members of the African Union and the United Nations.

Less than half of Africa's population lives in cities

Urban life is poorly developed on the African continent. Only 39% of the people of the mainland live in the city. The exceptions are Lagos and Cairo. Over 10 million people live in these large settlements (Lagos - 10-12 million people, Cairo - 11-15 million people).

Kinshasa, the capital of the Congo, also stands out among all the cities. About 10 million people are concentrated here.

The world's largest arid desert

The Sahara is the largest and driest desert in the world. Its territory occupies 9 million 100 thousand km2. This is almost the same as the size of the USA. The desert is located in northern Africa. The name of the Sahara is associated with nomadic tribes. It means desert area.

Interesting facts about Africa: it contains the largest desert - the Sahara.

25% of the desert is sandy. Precipitation occurs in the northern part of the desert in autumn, in the south in summer. Humidity is not more than 20%. In the south of the Sahara, a small section of the Niger River flows. The Nile also flows through the area. Vegetation is found in the northern part of the desert (shrubs, cereals). There are few animals because there is no variety of food.

The second largest hospital in the world

Africa is famous for the Chris Hani Baragwanath hospital facility. Its area is 0.70 km2(173 acres). Of great interest are the facts about the premises of the hospital. There are 3,200 beds and about 6,760 employees. The hospital is located in southern Africa (Johannesburg). It occupies the 2nd position among all hospitals in the world.

Disappearance of Lake Chad

According to official figures from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lake Chad has shrunk by almost 95% in recent decades. And before it took 4th place in size on the African mainland.

Professionals claim that the too rapid drying of the lake has affected the amount of agricultural output.

The excessive use of the water of Chad and the territories adjacent to it will lead to disagreements within the regions, as well as the massive departure of people in neighboring areas.

Sugar desert expansion

Interesting facts about Africa are often associated with sugar. Due to the degradation of land resources (desertification), the territory of the desert increases. This provoked by the disappearance of moisture from the soil and the deprivation of vegetation cover. The process of expansion of sugar also affects human activity. The desert is becoming more about 0.5 miles in 30 days.

The country with the highest population of wild animals

Tanzania is leading in terms of the number of wild animals located on its territory. There are national parks (14 pcs.), Reserves, marine parks that occupy over 42000 km2and more ⅓ territory of the state.

The richest country in Africa

The most economically developed and rich country on the African continent is Equatorial Guinea. It occupies 24 position in the world in GDP ($ 43,000), ahead of Great Britain, Spain, France, Israel and other states. The average monthly salary in the country is $ 1000.

Citizens of other African states are leaving there in order to gain a workplace. The number of Equatorial Guinea is over 1.2 million people. About 200 thousand inhabitants live in the territory of Malabo (state capital).

The lake with the greatest number of species of fish

The most tropical fish lives in Malawi Lake. There are about 1000 varieties of them here. Cikhlids occupy 90% of species of lake fish. The overwhelming majority of them are endemics. Lake cycilides are divided into 2 types: pelagic, as well as coastal (they differ in size, behavior, power method).

Near the shores with stone protrusions, there are about 500 fish of all kinds of varieties. The basis of fishing is precisely cichlids. They are the source of nutrition of most Malawi residents. Separate species go to export abroad, because they are decorative aquarium fish.

Other interesting facts about Africa for tourists

Africa - incomprehensible, but at the same time an amazing mainland, which keeps a lot of interesting information:

  • About 55 thousand African Penguins remained in the world. Even in the first half of the 20th century there were about 4 million individuals. In 2000, their number was already 200 thousand, and in 2010 - 55 thousand. If the rapid decrease will continue, then after 15 African Penguins will not remain at all.
  • Africa is the largest diamond manufacturer on the entire planet. Here is approximately half of the products from world production. The mainland made diamonds by about 158 ​​billion dollars (over 1900 million carats).
  • Ethiopia is the only state in Africa, which has never been influenced by foreign countries.
  • South Africa has 3 capitals: legislative (Cape Town), executive (Pretoria), judicial (Bloemfontein).
  • The African Mainland is the only one in the world where there are places with pristine man territories.
  • Hippos live only south of the Sahara. And before, they could be found throughout Africa.
  • Victoria Waterfall The population nicknamed with a rattle smoke.
  • The continent is an extremely small duration of life. For about 48 years, the female population is dying, and men - by 50 years.
  • There is a rare lake in Algeria, in which instead of ink water.
  • A large landfill, where household appliances are emitted from all parts of the world, is in Ghana.
  • Many African states are recognized by the countries of the second grade.
  • in Africa is infected with malaria 90% of tourists.
  • About 3,000 nationalities here.
  • Deserted sand has a property to heat up to 80 ° C.

Africa is included in the list of the most interesting places on the planet. There are many legends about this amazing mainland. The facts associated with the African continent are affected by their unusualness.

Registration of Articles: Lozinsky Oleg

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