Greater and Lesser Antilles on the world map. Where are they located, photos, who discovered them, interesting facts

On the world map, not a small number of island territories are marked. One of the brightest and most interesting in all respects objects of this nature are the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Caribbean, Netherlands) Islands. Previously, the region in which they settled down was called the West Indies.

Where are the islands

The Antilles are located in the west of the Atlantic between the two Americas.

The Greater Antilles (22°N 79°E) have states of the same name located on their territory:

  1. Jamaica.
  2. Cayman Islands.
  3. Puerto Rico.
  4. Haiti.
  5. Cuba (largest island).

The Lesser Antilles (15°26'20''N 61°19'08'') lie in a crescent to the east and south and include: the Virgin Islands, the Leeward Islands, and Windward Islands.

On the territory of these geographical objects, the presence of 8 independent states and countries under the protectorate of the USA and Great Britain, France and the Netherlands is determined. The number of people living on these islands is close to 4 million people.

Greater and Lesser Antilles on the map

The Antilles are among the most popular resorts in the Caribbean. Comfortable climate, beautiful nature and well-established infrastructure make the stay of numerous tourists unforgettable.

It is advisable to get to the Antilles through the USA with a visa of this country in hand, departing from the airports of Copenhagen, Oslo and London. You can fly from Helsinki with a change in London.

It is also possible to get to Jamaica, Cuba and the Dominican Republic from Russia by direct flight, but it will be much more expensive than getting there via the USA. Some islands that are protected by European countries can be reached from Europe: from Paris, Amsterdam, London. But this will be the most expensive option.

Geographic features of the Antilles

The Antilles (Large and Small) in total cover an area of ​​229 thousand km². About 42.5 million people live in this territory. The total number of islands under consideration is a little over 50.

The Greater Antilles on the world map look almost like a single line stretching in the direction of the Yucatan Peninsula. They have a natural characteristic of continental origin. The main part of the islands has a mountainous surface.

The height of the mountain peaks here can exceed 3 thousand meters (the highest point, 3087 meters - Pico Duarte, Dominican Republic). Patches of plains are observed partly in the Virgin and Leeward Islands, Haiti and Cuba. The territory of these islands is 207.5 thousand km², where 38 million people live.

The Lesser Antilles in their geological structure are objects of volcanic and coral formation. The area occupied by them is 13 thousand km² with a population of 4 million people. The highest point of these islands is located in Guadeloupe - Soufrière volcano (1467 m). There are 7 large active volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles.

The Antilles are completely part of the tropical belt, divided into two zones, which depend on the amount of precipitation. The leeward slopes of the Antilles with red-brown soils and the presence of rare forests and savannas can be attributed to the first.

The second zone is typical for the lee slopes of these islands with a large amount of precipitation on black and red soils, the presence of a thick tropical forest cover.

Historical facts

The settlement of the Caribbean region by indigenous people refers to periods from 5 thousand years BC. e. to 300 BC e. These included groups from Central and South America of the Palio-Indians, Siboneans, and Tainos.

The very name "Antiles" is identified (1493) as the designation of the island of Antilia, a semi-mythical character, which was marked on the geographical maps of the Middle Ages.

On the world map, the appearance and designation of the Greater and Lesser Antilles is due to the expeditions of the Spanish navigator H. Columbus in 1492. In 1506-1511. As a result of the military expeditions of E. Cortes and D. Velasquez, the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola were occupied, the population of which was turned into slaves, and this was the beginning of the age-old domination of Spain in this region.

And already in 1630-1640. This area came under Dutch rule. Then, with varying success, in different places, it moved to Great Britain, France, and Spain. The US has not been left out.

Since the XIX century. the process of exit of the colonial countries of the Caribbean from the empires began. In 1804, the colony of Saint-Domingue received its first independence from France. After that, the process of self-determination of the countries of the Antilles archipelago acquired a large-scale progressive character. Slavery on the islands was abolished in 1863.

Climatic conditions, the best time to travel

The Antilles are characterized by a tropical, hot climate. The sea winds smooth the heat. The temperature here is very warm and comfortable throughout the year. The change of seasons is mild, when the temperature difference is almost imperceptible.

The beginning of autumn is defined as the hottest time of the year in the Antilles. At this time, the thermometer here rises above + 27 °, and the coldest thing is in February at + 23 ° (at night up to + 21 °). In the warmest weather, there is no feeling of sweltering heat - this is facilitated by a relatively cool sea wind.

You can consider local weather conditions by months on the example of the Netherlands Antilles:

Month: Average precipitation (mm): Air temperature (°С): Humidity (%):
January140+2779
February135+2880
March125+2979
April125+2980
May160+3082
June140+3082
July150+ 3082
August140+3181
September b200+3180
October190+ 3180
November200+3180
December200+3080
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The Greater Antilles on the world map, (like the Lesser Islands), on one side go to the Atlantic Ocean, from which the trade winds blow. They bring a large amount of precipitation to the northeast of the archipelago, about 1 thousand mm per year. On the western side of this region, rainfall is much less, about 300 mm per year.

On all the islands of the Antilles archipelago, there is a fairly significant humidity, the values ​​of which do not fall below 75% throughout the year. There is also the possibility of passing destructive hurricanes. This is due to the finding of the Antille Islands in the Caribbean belt of hurricanes.

An exception in such a situation is the islands of Bonaire and Curaçao, where these air flows do not reach. The temperature of the Caribbean's water is very comfortable and slightly fluctuates during the year from + 22 ° C to + 26 ° C, and the sunny day lasts rather long.

Resting on the Antille Islands can be at any time of the year. In this definition, the North-West Islands Area is not included, since there since August to October, Livni and Hurricanes are raging.

The peak of the tourist season on the Antille Islands is recognized by the period from the end of winter until the end of May. In the interval of this time the air temperature on the caribbean (+ 26 °), and from the sea, without stopping, blowing a refreshing wind.

Flora and the fauna of the Antilles

The vegetable and animal world of the Antilles islands has sufficient similarity with the Flora Central America, but as much more.

The vegetation before the appearance on the islands of man had rich and dense character. With the vital activity of people, huge territories of virgin nature were destroyed.

Nowadays, tropical forests are preserved only in the mountains. In places where the climate is more arid, trees prevail, dropping foliage in a dry season. In mountainous areas there are reference forests. And within the islands, savanna is prevailing with its vegetation.

The animal world of the Caribbean islands is more similar to the Fauna of South America, while has almost 50% of animals with a sign of endimism.

Some types of plants and animals Antille Islands:

​​
Flora: Fauna:
Journery.Raccoon Racoed.
Mimosa.Lizard-iguana.
Cactus.Oposatsum.
Royal Palma.Apegola Snake.
Barbed Palma.Aguti.
Pine.Flamingo
Juniper.Todi.
a tree fern.Parrot.
Dwarf pine.Beloham deer.
Iva.
Heather.
Lavr.

The attractions of the Antille Islands

Antilles have a sufficient number of different attractions. Their territory has a huge number of first-class beaches with relevant infrastructure. Not deprived of the island by nature reserves and parks. Historical monuments here are mainly colonial in nature

on the island of Kuraoo, there is the largest building of the Caribbean Islands of the medieval period - Fort Amsterdam (1653). In its purpose, the fort was a fortress with the presence in its rooms of the caasemates. Nowadays this construction is a government residence.

On the same island, in one of the medieval buildings, is the Kuraoo Museum. Its rooms are an exposition consisting of craft objects and paintings, geographical maps and antique furniture.

Museums present on Curaoo, it should be noted:

  1. The Museum of the Church of the Fort.
  2. Museum of Kura-Huneda.
  3. Maritime Museum
  4. Jewish Cultural Historical Museum.

Museums, vintage colonial buildings and beautiful parks are located on the island of Klobeenk:

  1. Fort Orange (XIX century) - in some rooms here are located here Sea and historical museums, and in the rest - business offices.
  2. Museum Bonaire History and Culture of Indian peoples
  3. Lighthouse - the symbol of Korladenka is located next to the fort.

There is a number of unique natural parks on Haiti. Among them there is a complex of lakes "Blue Pool". Here, the cascades of waterfalls connect three lakes with unique beauty when the water saturated with cobalt has a deep blue color.

Sint-Eustius Island is famous for the presence of sand on its beaches, the color of which coincides with the color of pure snow. And almost immediately from the coast on this island, a real impassable rainforest begins.

At sea, in close proximity to the coast of Sint-Eustius Island, real gardens from corals were formed. The material for such formations was the various sea vessels in the shipwreck.

The island of Klein Bonaire is extremely interesting for tourists. This island is considered actually uninhabited, there are only wide beaches and sections of wildlife. The island itself is divided into a protected area guarded by the state, and to the territory free to visit tourists.

Bonaire Island is notable for the division of its territory by 2 plots - on the north side of this island there are natural elements of dense forests on the hills, and in the southern part of the island there is a desert terrain. Such contrasting reality was expressed in a wide variety of flora, the fauna of this island and its coastal waters.

"Garden Island" - this is the name of the island of Saint Lucia for its natural beauty, and the island of Grenada is called the "island of spices", which is rich in the presence of botanical gardens and magnificent beaches.

The above examples of sights of the Antilles are only a very small part of the overall picture of the splendor of this archipelago.

Excursions in the Antilles

The Greater Antilles on the world map, together with the Lesser Antilles, provide an opportunity to take advantage of a number of interesting and exciting excursions. There are many such activities on offer.

Here are some of the sightseeing tours:

  1. To Antigua ($140-320/1-8 pax/4 h. /personal driver and guide) - the tour starts from the place of residence on the island, or from the port of Antigua. There is a passage through the central part of the city and further - through small unique settlements. There will be a visit to the famous shipyard of Lord Nelson and his museum. Then the road will proceed to the peak of Antigua - Shilley's Heights, from which the islands of Guadeloupe and Montserrat are perfectly visible. The tour includes a visit to a section of the island with a tropical natural setting. At the end of the trip, there will be a drive along the northern coast of the island. It was from the north side of Antigua that the British first settled.
  2. To St. Barts (150-360 € / 1-8 people / 2 hours / personal driver and guide) - the tour starts from acquaintance with the island capital - the city of Gustavia and the harbor. Then the tourists will proceed to St. John's Bay and visit the popular beaches of the city. After that, there will be an acquaintance with the oldest village of St. Barts - Lorient, and a return to Gustavia.
  3. To St. Kitts ($110-500 / 1-8 people / 4 hours) - the tour starts from the hotel with a drive to the capital of the island, the city of Baster. Here is Independence Square, where in ancient times there was a huge slave market. Then, with a drive along the colorful coast, the tour will lead to the Romney estate and the famous Caribelle batik factory in the Caribbean. There is also a huge botanical garden. The end of the tour will be a visit to one of the magnificent beaches of the island.

Popular Destinations

Independent holidays in the Antilles, as in the case of a choice of excursions in this region, provide a huge choice. Almost every island of this archipelago is able to provide tourists with the opportunity to have a great rest.

For example:

  1. Cuba is the largest geographical feature of the Antilles, located in the north of the Caribbean Sea. When visiting it, there are no visa difficulties. Nature seems sufficiently rich in the tropical version. Impressive beaches look somewhat exotic on a colonial revolutionary architectural background.
  2. Jamaica - You can also get here without a visa. The state (island) is part of the British Commonwealth. There is a unhurried rhythm of life, mixed in music and communicating with nature. The nature of the island is quite attractive, the beaches are simply magnificent. Jamaica hotels are represented by a wide price selection.
  3. Barbados - flat, with a small transition to the horizontal is an island surrounded by reefs from corals and in the east of small antillest islands. All year round on the island there is a mild climate with a lack of sudden temperature drops. Rest on Barbados is characterized as calm, measured, there is the possibility of visiting protected places of wildlife.

Hotels of Antille Islands

Large Antille Islands on the world map, along with small antilles, offer hotels in the widest price spectrum, for example:

  1. Tropics View Jamaica (Jamaica, Grenvale Cross Road, Hatfield.) - The hotel has a garden and outdoor pool, fitness center and a bar, free internet, apartments from 13 m² with a private bathroom. and free toiletries. The cost of living from 4,380 rubles.
  2. Sheraton Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo, George Washington Avenue, 365,10205.) - The hotel has a garden, swimming pool, shop. Souvenirs and sauna. Breakfast and lunch in a buffet format, there is a spa and a fitness center, as well as safes, air conditioners and TVs with cable channels. The price per room is from 7 thousand to 23 thousand rubles.
  3. Hostel La Vista (Puerto Rico, San Juan, 2157 Calle Teniente Lavergne, Ocean Park, 00913.) - The hostel includes free internet, complimentary breakfast and toiletries. For guests of the hostel, a terrace and a tour desk, a game room, and on the territory of this institution there is a garden and playgrounds for outdoor activities. The cost of accommodation begins from 1.7 thousand rubles.

Interesting facts about the Antille Islands

Antille Islands have a large number of interesting and entertaining facts.

These include:

  1. any of the small Antille Islands is either acting or an extinct volcano.
  2. In Puerto Rico, the city of San Juan, part of the streets paving a blue-colored slave, obtained from steel smelting waste in the XVIII century. Found from Europe. Over time, this pavement has acquired a blue color.
  3. On the island of Barbados are the greatest fig trees. For their grip, it is necessary that 15 people took up hands.
  4. In the coastal waters of Cuba, visibility in water with good weather is more than 60 m.
  5. Island Haiti Locals are called Espanyola.
  6. Jamaica is considered the first colony of Great Britain. This happened when the British victory over the Spaniards in 1655
  7. in the territory of the state of Antigua and Barbuda grows the sweetest pineapple in the world (Black Pineapple).

Antilles (large and small) on the tourist map of the world occupy advanced positions on attendance by people. This is facilitated by a soft comfortable climate during the whole year, a huge number of tourists hosting places and the well-established infrastructure of these islands. Many thousands of people from all over the world rushed to rest in this region.

Registration of Articles: Mila Fridan

Video about the Antilles

Documentary film about small Antilles: