Great Lakes of North America, USA and Canada. Area, depth, where are on the world map, photo

On the world map, in the USA and Canada, you can find places with untouched wildlife, the largest group of freshwater lakes in the world - the Great Laurentian Lakes. They fascinate with their size, rare species of animals that live on their shores and picturesque landscapes.

The Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater deep reservoirs, they can be seen on the world map in the eastern part of North America, along the southern border of the Canadian shield.

Lake name Location Area,

thousand km²

The greatest depth, m Place occupied in the world in terms of water area
UpperMinnesota Michigan

Ontario

Wisconsin

82.1034062nd
HuronMichigan

Ontario

59,5902294th
MichiganWisconsin Illinois Indiana

Michigan

58,0262815th
ErieOntario

Ohio

New York

Pennsylvania

Michigan

25.6676411th
OntarioNew York

Ontario

19.01124414th

Lead Some lakes on the world map cover an area of ​​95,160 sq. km. miles (246,463 sq. km) and extend 750 miles (1,200 km) from west to east. Their drainage basin is about 295,710 sq. miles (which includes the areas of the lakes themselves and the waterways connecting them) extends about 690 miles from north to south and about 860 miles from Lake Superior in the west to Lake Ontario in the east.

The shores of the Great Lakes vary considerably from region to region. The east side of Lake Michigan is dominated by sandy beaches, while the shores of Lakes Superior and Huron are mostly rocky and often lined with sandstone and shale cliffs. Wetlands are characteristic of the shores of Lake Ontario.

Of the thousands of islands in the lakes, Manitoulin in Lake Huron is the largest in the world. Occupies an area of ​​1068 sq. miles with a population of 12,600 people.

Lake Erie is the fourth in area of ​​25,700 square meters. km (including islands), of which 12,800 sq.km are located in Canada, the height above sea level is 173.3 m; 388 km long, 92 km wide and 64 m deep. The shallowest body of water of the 5 major Great Lakes (with the exception of Lake St. Clair). Warms up quickly in spring and often freezes in winter due to its depth of 19 m.

Lake Huron has the longest coastline (3,827 miles / 6,157 km) with its many islands. The coastline stretches for 3,827 miles (6,158 km) and is characterized by fine sandy beaches and rocky shores of Georgian Bay.

Lake Michigan is:

  • 118 miles (189 km) wide;
  • 307 miles (494 km) long;
  • over 1,600 miles (2,574 km) of coastline.

The drainage basin includes parts of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

On a world map, Lake Ontario is the smallest of the Great Lakes when measured by surface area (7,340 sq. miles / 18,960 sq. km). Located downstream from Lake Erie, Lake Ontario sits at the foot of Niagara Falls. The reservoir is 193 miles (310 km) long and 53 miles (85 km) wide.

Lake Superior is the largest in terms of area - 82,100 square meters. km and water volume (2,903 cubic miles / 12,100 cubic km). It is not only the largest of the Laurentian lakes, but also has the largest surface area among freshwater bodies of water in the world.

With an average depth approaching 500 feet (152 m), Lake Superior is the coldest and deepest (406 m) of all the Great Lakes.

The body of water extends approximately 350 miles (563 km) from west to east and 160 miles (257 km) from north to south, with a coastline of nearly 2,800 miles (4,506 km). The catchment basin with a total area of ​​49,300 sq. miles (79,340 sq. km) covers parts of Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Ontario.

Most of the Upper Basin is sparsely populated and heavily forested, with little agriculture due to the cool climate and poor soils. Shipping is developed on the Great Lakes.

The Great Lakes on the world map

Reservoirs connected by rivers together form the St. Lawrence transport artery. Since the completion of the construction in 1959 of the sea route of St. Lawrence, systems of dredging channels, canals and locks, lakes were open to ships.

Lake Erie is connected to the Atlantic through the Erie Canal and the Hudson River. Lake Michigan - with the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico Illinois Waterway, which spans:

  • the Chicago River;
  • Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal;
  • the Des Plaines River and the Illinois River.

Channels Sault Sainte Marie allow ships to pass through the thresholds on the Saint Meris river between the Upper and Huron reservoirs, and Welland's ship canal connects Lake Erie and Ontario bypassing Niagara Falls. Lakes and canals are closed for shipping from December to April, when the ice can make it difficult to pass.

Upper

The top lake is one of the largest water bodies in the world, which contains more water than in all other great lakes combined. With an area of ​​82 100 square meters. km (of which 28,750 square meters are coming from Canada), including the American part, the top lake is the largest Lake Canada.

About 300 rivers and streams feed with water. The reservoir formed about 10,000 years ago. Tectonic processes led to the formation of Kotlovin. The melting of glaciers helped them to fill, forming a lake. The animal world is very diverse.

The lake is a habitat of 80 varieties of fish, including salmon, carp and trout varieties.

Many species of birds live here:

  • hawks;
  • Gagars;
  • owls;
  • Dyatli.

The upper lake is located in the zone of coniferous and mixed forests, the following types of trees grow:

  • of the fir;
  • fir;
  • pine;
  • Maple;
  • beech;
  • Birch;
  • Lipa;
  • Chestnut.

Deep water, are the kingdom of certain organisms that are found only in deep cold lakes of northern latitudes. These include shrimp and deep-water crustaceans.

on the lake is a wet continental climate, which is characteristic in winter, the temperature of -15 ° C, in the summer: + 17 ° C. 600-800 mm of precipitation drops per year. Winter temperatures around the lake are rarely lowered below - 34 C. In the fall, it becomes very windy, in October and November waves rose on the lake.

Water temperature:

​​
Minimum value Maximum value month
05January
04February
04MART
04April
16May
310June
419July
820August
920September
615October
410November
36December

On the lake Commercial fishing (Sig, Okun, Carp, Sudak), and sports (Sudak, Pike, Okun, Rainbow Trout).

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Huron

Lake Huron is the second largest lake in North America. The main tributaries are the straits of Machino and the River of St. Mary, Mississaga, Sagino. Tectonic processes, about 10,000 years ago, led to the formation of the depression, which were filled with melt glacier water.

As a result, Lake Huron was formed. Modern reservoir sizes reached 7,000 years ago. On the lake moderately - continental climate with cold winter and hot summer.

From December to February, the temperature is kept at 10-15 ° C, as a result of which, about once a decade, the lake freezes. In the cold season, temperatures around the reservoir are rarely lowered below - 30 ° C. Summer is warm roast, with a temperature of + 20-25 ° C. In the year of precipitation drops 600-700 mm.

Water temperatures:

] [2 62]
Minimum value Maximum value Month
27January
15February
07March
16April
211May
419June
824July
1525August
1523September
1020October
514November
49December

Lake Huron has several 10,000 acre tracts of pine and hardwood forests.

The Canadian side of the basin is mostly covered with mixed forest, consisting of:

  • pines;
  • cedar;
  • birch;
  • maple;
  • oak;
  • beech;
  • walnut;
  • hickory.

The forests are inhabited by:

  • squirrels;
  • wolves;
  • lynx;
  • white-tailed deer;
  • bears.

Canadian beaver and muskrat can be seen on the rocky shores of the reservoir.

Many varieties of rare fish live in the lake, these are:

  • herring whitefish;
  • trout;
  • lamprey;
  • salmon;
  • vendace;
  • zander.

Many birds live and nest here: glaucous gulls, polar gulls and woodcocks.

The Northern Basin is an isolated, inland area where several settlements are engaged in the exploitation of forest and mineral resources. Important industries include mining, pulp and paper, food processing, chemicals, transportation equipment, and metalworking.

Michigan

The Great Lakes on the world map, in particular, Lake Michigan is the only one of the 5 that is completely located on the territory of America.

The lake was formed more than 9,500 years ago, as a result of tectonic processes and the melting of a huge glacier, which filled the formed basins with fresh water. The reservoir reached its present size about 3,000 years ago.

water temperature:

[36. 1]
Minimum value Maximum value month
26January
14February
14March
14April
39May
517June
1123July
124August
1523September
1118October
512November
59December

Lake Michigan moderate climate with well-defined seasons. The temperature varies from -5 C in January to + 22 ° C in July. Winter rates do not fall below - 25 ° C. 800-900 mm of precipitation falls per year. Most of the shores of Lake Michigan occupy forests, the fauna of which is very diverse.

Here live here: coitot, bears, squirrels, moose, wolves, chipmunks, deer, lynx, raccoons. On the banks of the reservoir nest: seagulls, white-headed Orlans, from the reptiles you can meet: snakes, turtles, salamander.

The Great Lakes on the World Map are piercing for many birds: wild ducks, geese, crags, seagulls, hoodies, herons nest along the coast. Lake is chipped trout, perch, carpamas, tobutchka and pike. Along the shores, sea bass, cod, perch and flounder, as well as mollusks, lobsters, shrimps, oysters and mussels. The southern part of the lake coast is an industrial area.

Here is a number of industrial centers and ports, the largest of which is the city-port Chicago. Estimated lakes on the world map play a significant role in the economic activity of the region: logging and fishing, commercial transportation of iron ore, grain and limestone.

Lake Favorite place in tourists. It is popular not only by the reservoir itself, but also the attractions on his shores. The most popular: is the Museum of Shipping, Sunping-Ber-Dunes Reserve, Lighthouse of the Old Mission.

Saint-Claire

Lake Saint-Claire, covers an area of ​​1114 km and has a middle depth of 3.7 m. Almost round shape it has a length of 42 km and the maximum width of 39 km. The Saint Claire lake does not apply to the Great Lakes, but is part of an important transport route from the lake of the top 5 lakes to the Bay of St. Lawrence.

The lake formed several millennia ago. Due to the effects of tectonic processes and melting of glaciers, the lake was formed. Climate on the lake is characteristic: cold winter with temperate snowfall and hot sunny summer characterize the weather on the Saint Claire lake. Summer is moderately roast with high humidity.

The average temperatures range in the range from + 10 ° C to + 28 ° C, the maximum reaches + 34 ° C. Winter is relatively warm with temperatures from 0 to -16 ° C. The amount of precipitation from 250 to 500 mm per year.

In the Saint-Claire lake, 110 species of fish live, many of which use this region for spawning. Popular species include: Yellow perch, pike perch, small perch and crucian. Numerous waterfowls are common in the wetlands: ducks, swans and rzhanks.

Water vegetation is most common along the shores and provides important habitats for fish and invertebrates, as well as food sources for waterfowl. The territory of the shores of the lake is covered with pines, birchings, maples, oaks and nuts.

Approximately 20 kinds of mammals characterize the animal life of the Saint Claire lake. Among the large wild animals - white-deer, elk, black bear, lynx, wolf. About 25 important fur animals are common, including opossum, ondatra, striped skuns, foxes, mink, beaver, leaf, hare and proteins. Store of the habitat lake for a variety of birds: burgomaster, barrlas, finch, polar seagull.

water temperature:

Minimum value Maximum value month
05January
03February
08March
111April
618May
1322June
1825July
2025August
1625September
1019October
313November
28December

Great lakes on the world map are a popular place to visit tourists, so the coast has many boat, sailing and yacht clubs. Trout and Salmon Fishing Makes Saint Claire Lake One of the most popular places for fishing and recreation.

The reservoir is part of the main transport route for commercial ships. To ensure the movement of vessels, a dredging navigation canal is maintained with a depth of 8.3 m - more than twice the natural bottom of the lake.

ERI

The smallest of Lavrentiev lakes - ERI, with a maximum depth of 64 m.

, thanks to the effects of tectonic processes, hooks were formed. Over time, they slowly filled with water as a result of the melting of glaciers, thus forming a water.

West shore of Lake Erie is very swollen. Most of the marshes were drained during the construction of coastal cities. In the remaining territories, reserves were created, where you can see "intact" wildlife.

more than 1000 hectares of cane and reeds grows on the territory of the park. Warm summer, excellent beaches and well-preserved coastal swamps make Erie's favorite meeting place for lovers of summer holidays and wildlife lovers.

Ornithologists come to these areas to watch birds on the main routes of their migration. Although in winter, Erie freezes, it remains an important part of the Saint Lawrence shipping path system.

National Park, located on the shore of the lake, the only place on the continent, where the unique animal world of swamps has been preserved. Many of wild animals, such as gray wolf, elk and beaver live in these places. Other mammals include a Canadian lynx, a small brown bat, a river otter and coyote.

Lake Eri is important for many types of migratory and local birds, especially waterfowl. Since it is a place for breeding, feeding and resting birds, such as a Bald Eagle, Northern Lun, ordinary bugar, a cormorant with two ridges, colt ordinary.

:

Minimum value Maximum value 461] month
18January
12February
13MART
16April
416May
1221June
1625July
1825August
1925September
1420October
614November
411December

The lake is located in the zone of moderate climate, with warm summer and cold winter, which is peculiar in the cold season, temperature -7-10 ° C, in summer: +20 + 22 ° С. 800-900 mm falls per year. Winter temperatures around the lake are rarely lowered below - 15 ° C.

Great lakes, on the world map located on the territory of North America, supports fishing for the catch of yellow perch, producing it more than 20,000 tons per year.

Ontario

at the Ontario lake area of ​​90 130 square meters. km, the middle depth is 86 m, the length of 311 km and the width is 85 km. This is the smallest area and the most east of the Lavrentian lakes and the eighth largest massif of freshwater in North America. The lake receives most of the water from other great lakes across the Niagara River and flows into the Saint Lawrence River through the Kingston pool at its northeast end.

Other tributaries are the Jenshie Rivers, Oswie and Black in New York and the Trent River in Ontario. The lake was formed after the melting of the glacier, as a result of tectonic processes that continue to today. The intersection of old and higher glacial and lake sediments in the southeastern part of Toronto spawned rocky rocks - rocks towering 100 m above the lake.

The lake is located in the zone of moderate climate, which is characteristic of cold winters and a short short summer. The average temperature in the summer + 22 ° C. In winter, temperatures are rarely lowered below -10 ° C.

water temperature:

Minimum value Maximum value month
18January
05February
05MART
16April
216May
420June
1024July
1825August
1624September
1020October
613November
59December

The territory off the coast of Lake Ontario is covered with maples, pines, oaks and nuts. More than 20 mammal species characterize the animal life of the lake. Among wild animals in the territory there are lynx, deer, pums, coyotes, elk, wolves. On the shores there are seagulls, ducks, burgomaster, barrlas.

Fertile soils, as well as unhindered access to maritime transportation on the sea route of St. Lawrence - Make Lake Ontario promising industrial center of agriculture.

Great lakes attend about 50 million people annually. Rocks, wildlife are just some of the reasons to visit the Lavrentiev Lakes, which can be found in North America on the world map.

Registration of Articles: Vladimir Great

Video about Great Lakes

Documentary film NAT GEO about Great Lakes:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3z3Quyynfo