Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Where is it located, what is famous for. Description, information, Cook Strait

, all surifers and diving lovers are striving Put on a great barrier reef. This is a unique and amazing place where the main part of coral atolls is located in Australia and is listed on the list of the most important objects of world heritage. On the world map, thousands of reefs are presented in the form of a huge underwater park.

Description and location of a large barrier reef in Australia

The largest coral system of Australia includes 900 islands and almost 3000 reefs. Her area is 349000 square meters. km, and the length is 2500 km. With the occurrence of a low tide, underwater reefs formed by billions of polyps are opened.

Formed about 400 thousand years ago, the coral eco-system still continues to grow and develop. The origin of the ridge in the Northeast Australian coast, according to scientists, occurred about 25 million years ago.

Large coral accumulation is not only living organisms off the coast of Australia, but also about 900 separate islands. Some of them still remain uninhabited. By area, the reef system of Australia overtook the British Islands. It is a miracle of the world right in the coral sea. Large barrier reef envelopes almost all the Quinsland coast.

The Australian atoll eco-system begins in the tropical cities of Gladstone and Bundaberg, and ends almost new Guinea, in the Torres Strait. Cape Melville, in the north, corals are removed 50 km from the shores, in the south they disintegrate into small reefs and are 300 km from Sushi.

The Australian coral system formed billionth colonies of small polyps. These organisms, feeding by microscopic algae, remove fragile and defenseless arrays from limestone.

Coral polyps do not tolerate even minor temperature differences.

Reefs from corals in Australia are less than 1% of the oceanic area, but they are inhabited by a quarter of all famous marine inhabitants. Thanks to this merit, a large barrier reef since 1981 is considered a miracle of the world and a significant object of the world heritage of UNESCO.

History of the opening of reef in the Cook Strait

Large barrier reef (on the world map, he was noted as a national coral park) was opened with the famous researcher James Cup. He came across this place by chance: it was stranded during his next travel on the ship. The incident occurred 160 km from the Northeast Australian city of Kerns.

The navigator had to throw off the ship all unnecessary and even cannon, to somehow remove the ship with corals and repair. The objects thrown into the sea stayed at the bottom up to 20 V. Then they raised the American expedition then. Now finds are located at the local museum, and one of the guns is on Green Island.

Before the Cook about the Australian Big Reef, the locals of the continent and the islands of Torres Strait knew. For them, the extended coral ridge also had cultural and historical importance since antiquity. The formal opening of the barrier reef is attached to 1770, when the Cook ship is stuck among corals.

The history of the development of a large barrier reef

Study of Australian Coral Reef began 40,000 years ago. The ancestors of modern locals settled its islands of 10,000 years ago. For Europe, a large reef opened only at 18th century, when it was reached by maritime research expeditions. Since then, famous routes from Torres Strait to shopping Chinese and Indian cities appeared.

from 19 V. Scientists began to systematically master the big barrier reef. At the same time, they began to actively produce trepalg and pearls and export them to Europe and Asia. Such sharp jumps in the development of the reef occurred after the English researcher of the seas Jeffries successfully regenened the Australian coral on his ship at the beginning of the 19th century.

The threat of the disappearance of the natural miracle

is a large barrier reef (on the world map it is not so clearly visible, as in ancient times) is subjected to a detrimental influence of people and nature. Because of this, he threatens a complete disappearance from the face of the earth in the near future. Increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, especially destructively affect the corals: they die.

due to stress, which cause external factors, reefs are discolored and cannot function normally.

The reasons are harmful to the health of corals:

  • increasing water temperature;
  • environmental pollution;
  • Polyps disease.

According to the continuous aerial photography, it can be seen that an ancient reef system has already discharged by 93%. By examining these places, scientists argue that half of the corals no longer exist. The remaining organisms are badly damaged.

But the Australian Barrier Reef can still be saved, despite such gloomy forecasts. The sea temperature can be stabilized if air pollution ceases with carbon dioxide.

Now scientists are trying to lower the water temperature by creating an artificial shade for reefs. They also invent new, more heat-resistant types of corals. But to solve this problem, it is necessary to go globally, the whole world.

Climate

The area of ​​the Australian coral ridge has a subequatorial climate. The temperature on the ground remains constant all year round. The big reef in Australia is visited from April to December, since during this period the humidity is minimal here.

In the table below, you can see minor temperature fluctuations of a miracle of light:

December - February March - May June - August September - November
+23; +31+21; +28+18; +26+19; +27

How to get to a large barrier reef

There are 6 ways to arrive in Australian Coral Ridge:

  • Flight with a joint flight of the Australian airline and Aeroflot, which begins in Moscow, and ends in Sydney, bypassing Tokyo. If you choose Japanese airlines instead, then they offer to spend the night in their hotel for free if necessary.
  • Convenient flight through Arab airlines, which can also provide a hotel.
  • Fly Korean flight from Seoul.
  • Take the plane of the Thai airline in Bangkok.
  • Fly in Australia from Singapore.
  • Flight to Melbourne or Sydney from Abu Dhabi.

Already arriving on the shores of Queensland, until the reefs themselves are usually achieved on dive ships or pleasure boats.

Where to stay

Australian coral barrier is equipped with numerous hotels in various types.

Hotels with 5 stars:

  • Pullman Port Douglas Si Temple Resort End Spa, Rooms here are from 10341 RUB;
  • Mandelei Laksheri Bichfront Epartments, the cost of the rooms from 17157 rubles;
  • Niramaya Willlas End Spa, bungalow there have a price tag from 12221 rubles.

4-star:

  • Sentral Plaza Port Douglas: accommodation here will cost from 16452 rubles;
  • Kuti Port Douglas - from 8900 rubles;
  • Pool Resort Port Douglas - from 12200 rubles.

Hotels in 3 stars:

  • Port Douglas Ritrite - from 6100 rub.;
  • Port Douglas Quinselder - from 4600 rubles;
  • Siscep Holidays - Tropicel Reef Epartments - from 10600 rubles.

budget hotels:

  • Corel Epartments Port Douglas - per day with a person here take from 9800 rubles;
  • Port Douglas BEKPEXERS - from 1100 rubles;
  • Sissep Holidays - 8 Surya - from 21500 rubles.

Islands of the Big Barrier Reef

The Great and Wonderful Coral Complex of Australia is not only a variety of reefs, but also a huge number of individual islands. On the world map, this National Sea Park stands out: extended ridge along the coast and spotted lagoon.

Islands of a large barrier reef even have their own reefs that surround them like dense forests. Next, you can familiarize yourself with the most popular of them.

Dunk

Natural Tropics of the island is an idyll that is suitable for family travelers. On rainforests, it is very pleasant to walk on foot or riding. The territory of the island is one large reserve, which is equipped with comfortable coastal villas with high-quality service.

Entertainment such as:

  • Sea and hiking trees are popular;
  • Ocean fishing;
  • water skiing;
  • golf;
  • Tennis;
  • riding on horseback;
  • Archery.

For children on the island, nanny services are provided and a children's club applies, and for adults - a snow-white beach and a massage room. Easy to reach the aircraft from Kerns in 45 minutes.

Heron

Open at 19 V. F. Blackwood island preserved his primaryness to the present day. It is located right on corals. Here, as anywhere else, the beach holidays and underwater diving are common.

For diving, you can rent equipment, as well as take lessons on it, after which the certificate is necessarily issued. Underwater beauty inspect independently or in groups, both during the day and night.

For tourists in Gheron, various excursions are organized:

  • by helicopter;
  • by sea on the boat;
  • hiking in shallow water.

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stop on the island in the only simple hotel with 3 stars. Room rates include not only stay in the hotel, but also a three-time meal, as well as transfer to the island. The best travel time for Heron is the late autumn, when the corals begin to multiply, and the turtles are to put the eggs.

Lisard

If you translate from English the name of the island, then the word lizard will be. This name was given to the place the first travelers due to the fact that they saw here a large number of these reptiles. Lisard is part of a large coral atoll. To the island get on yachts or hydroplanes. Children on Lisard are allowed only from 10 years.

Tourists are located in a five-star hotel with well-equipped rooms and a full board, where:

  • swimming in pools;
  • classes in the gym;
  • spa treatments;
  • Power.

Hayman

This northern island is a private ownership. In 1950, a millionaire R. Antestet built a luxury resort here. Future newlyweds always seek to get here to spend their wedding. Hyman is also a scientific base with a biological laboratory. Now the island has become a luxury spa resort with a well-known pool and elegant villas.

The nature of Hyman is a separate story that should be seen and learned. The sights of the island are:

  • Observation platform WhitSanday;
  • Bay Blue Pearl;
  • Dolphin Cape with a rock called the hand of the Lord.

Hyman has the following awards:

  • The title of the best Australian hotel;
  • 1 place in the golden register of Laksheri Trevel;
  • Prize Australian Tourist Association.

Hamilton

The largest and inhabable island is used as a tourist resort. Hamilton is Mecca for active travelers.

To their services here are:

  • Sports clubs for children;
  • gyms;
  • Tennis courts;
  • Golf courses;
  • kayaks;
  • bananas;
  • scubaled;
  • Canoeing and catamarans;
  • Motor Boats and Water Motorcycles.
Whitsunday Apartments on Hamilton Island, Great Barrier Reef

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The island is just as suitable for lovers as it is for other tourists. It has a lot of quiet places where you can safely retire and relax.

Any traveler arriving on Hamilton will be offered:

  • rich excursions;
  • a variety of entertainment;
  • high quality service;
  • excellent cuisine.

Bedarra

Another private island where you can enjoy a quality holiday, it has white sand beaches and magnificent villas. Seaside restaurants for romantics arrange daily picnics by the sea with a variety of dishes and cocktails.

Inquisitive tourists are provided with motor boats to explore the island and reefs, and sportsmen are provided with tennis courts. To relax on Bedarra, you can sleep in a hammock or enjoy a massage with minerals.

The mysterious and chic island is reached by private airlines and then by boat. Vacationers are waiting for:

  • island and reef fishing;

  • spa and massage;
  • diving;

  • tennis;
  • walks on land;
  • Shore picnics;
  • motor boats and water skis.

Attractions and entertainment

The Great Barrier Reef (always referred to as a biosphere reserve on the world map) is famous not only for its unique nature, but also for several popular noteworthy places that attract tourists no worse than corals.

These include:

  • Vurunuran National Park, which is over 100 million years old;
  • Daintree Tropical Park with ancient forests and extraordinary flora and fauna;

  • Cape Tribulation Beach;
  • Aboriginal settlement;
  • Cape Misfortune;
  • Mossman Gorge;
  • Bloomfield Falls;

  • Cairns resort with its own national park and cable car.

Entertainment includes:

  • coral reef cruises;
  • tours of Aboriginal villages;
  • balloon rides;

  • beach jeep safari.

Cuisine Features

The Great Barrier Reef (on the world map, this huge coral system looks like a long coastal shoal) is famous for its unique cuisine. Australian cuisine is very diverse.

In the cuisine of this continent, the traditions of such countries as:

  • England and Ireland intertwined;
  • Malaysia;
  • China;
  • Japan.

Recipes may consist of:

  • opossum or crocodile meat;
  • chicken;
  • ostriches;
  • rabbit meat;
  • kangaroo or lamb meat;
  • beef or pork.

Absolutely all the food prepared for the guests of the coral reefs is exquisite and very appetizing.

Popular snacks include:

  • fruit and vegetable salads;
  • beetle or grub delicacies;
  • seafood;
  • sandwiches in the form of rolls;
  • dolma.

Interesting facts about the Big Reef

In addition to all of the above, Australian reefs have many more secrets and interesting details. For example, sea cows are found in these places.

The entire fauna of the barrier reef includes:

  • about one and a half thousand species of fish;
  • 17 species of underwater reptiles;

  • 49 types of marine needles;
  • 125 species of rays and sharks;
  • 6 varieties of sea turtles;
  • 215 bird populations;
  • almost 30 species of whales.

Under the waters of the barrier reef in Australia, there is a red perch that lives for more than 50 years. Along with him live giant clams with large and very expensive pearls. There is also a coral-damaging starfish called Crown of Thorns. Its species grows rapidly by continuously devouring the polyps that make up the reefs.

An ancient ship sank at the bottom of the marine park. Numerous underwater inhabitants found shelter and shelter in its wreckage. The ship went to the bottom already almost dead, because before that it was completely destroyed by a hurricane.

Corals grow only 1.5 cm a year, and over 50% of the large reef has been destroyed in the last 33 years. To preserve the underwater ecosystem, scientists propose to relocate it to another place. A small part of the barrier reef has already been successfully transferred to the territory of the United Arab Emirates. But pulling the whole ridge is not possible for anyone.

The Australian Government by 2050 planned extensive measures to save reefs, allocating 2 billion American dollars for this.

Scientists also intend to launch surface fans that will cool the seaside temperature. These huge floating structures should appear in the northern part of Queensland. This step is aimed at saving tourist routes and saving jobs.

In November, corals occur at a massive spawning. Therefore, here so strive to get to fall in the fall: watch the reef sex. Temperature and lunar phases at this time have corals to surprise a lot of eggs and spermatozoa. It happens all this is actually quite spectacular and effectively.

any visitor of the Australian Barrier Reef, which is more than 4 years old, must pay a six-dollar duty that will go to salvation of fragile and almost extinct eco-system.

Corals are able to improve water around themselves: they are filtered, freeing from all over. Thanks to this, the sea in the area of ​​the barrier reef is transparent and clean. And quite recently, scientists have discovered in the farthest part of the large Australian reef blue hole, which is still referred to as the ocean capsule.

This discovery was happy, since it was healthy coral colonies, fish and turtles.

Recently, scientists noticed that corals can eat plastic, which is known is an ecological threat. And even if it is almost all excluded from the stomach of underwater organisms, some of its part remains inside. It turns out that the reefs of corals are cleaned not only water, but also the whole environment, little by little, but still.

To further study the behavior of corals, scholars of the Sydney Institute have printed 3D copies of the barrier reef. Such actions really help to understand the causes of the destruction of the eco-system, as well as to prevent the appearance of harmful factors, adversely affect the corals.

Artificial reefs are hidden by fish feeding by algae that destroy real organisms. For copies, it is also convenient to cling to live corals.

Modern Big Barrier Reef is the last ancient treasure of humanity. On the world map, it is located on the territory of the Australian continent. People should ensure that it is not completely lost.

Article author: tanyda

Article design: Svetlana Ovsyanikova

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