Gazebo. What is it in architecture, palaces in Vienna, Peterhof

Lightweight, called Belvedere, in the European Architecture of the Renaissance and the next few centuries was considered a sign of royal luxury. Such Elegant construction was erected on elevations, using the features of the terrain. This allowed to view the surroundings and admire landscapes.

Belvedere (Belvedere) is the collective name of structures, buildings, palaces created on any elevation - natural or man-made.

Belvedere - the word Italian (LE Belvédère), the same as the French Bellevue, and So in Russian translation literally "Beautiful View." In the terminological dictionary on the construction of VNIISIs, the USSR State Construction, translated into 12 languages ​​of the world, is that the Belvedere is a building or a building on a hill in a beautiful natural place. "

What it is - definition

in European architectural flows Belvedere is called various types of light buildings. This is a meaningful term. In France, they call the open pavilion or a spokeside of a special form. Belveders of this type are constructed in gardens and summer residences.

In the architecture of the Italian Renaissance, such buildings resemble overview turrets and crowned pompous castle complexes. In some currents, they are a massive structure with long galleries decorated with stucco columns and arched openings.

Palace Belvedere in Vienna

Belvedere is a building, an appearance, a geometric configuration, the architectural features of which depend From the style of the style and destination of the building. In Russian architecture, the term often denotes towers, attic superstructures in rich houses and teremes.

The classic European gothic belvedere is an architectural decoration of a pyramidal or conical shape, which crowns a spire or buttress - a specific vertical structure in the form of:

  • a protruding section walls;
  • additional stiffener of the structure;
  • a free-standing support connected with other building elements by a flying buttress - a semi-arched stone vault extended outside;
  • ​​
  • a stepped or continuously sloping typical fragment of Gothic structures.

The definition of the classic Italian belvedere boils down to an overview purpose of light construction. In the Russian architecture of the XVIII century. such elements, designed in the form of an attic room, were especially popular.

In some architectural directions, this term denotes a round tower superstructure above the palace complex. Belvedere is also called a roofed terrace open on all sides, towering above the building. Often this is not a separate fragment of the building, but the entire palace complex.

The definition of a meaningful architectural term includes a rounded or faceted element of the mansion, intended for relaxation and viewing the surroundings. This concept is related to a pylon - a tower-like superstructure in the form of a truncated pyramid.

Such elements were located on both sides of the narrow entrance opening in ancient Egyptian temples. A belvedere of a simple design without additional decoration and surfaces of complex configuration was often used in the construction of church buildings in a restrained Romanesque style.

In rare cases, such an element had a large number of angles and served as a transition between the pylon and the spire of the cathedral. In Gothic architecture, small belvederes were placed at the corners of the temple building.

For 300 years, such superstructures were used in an eclectic architectural trend. Their functional purpose is also to take on the axial load of the lateral arch to make the buttress more rigid.

History of appearance

Italy is considered to be the birthplace of the Belvedere. This type of building was used by ancient Roman architects. The belvedere received a fresh impetus and rethinking in medieval castle and fortification construction, where it was used to monitor enemy movements and control the situation on the battlefield.

The observation tower of the early Middle Ages was a closed structure with loopholes and observation slots. From Italy it spread throughout Europe. Significantly transformed and adapted by the goal of palace construction Easy construction has been applied in various style directions.

Belvedere is such a convenient, functional, universal and aesthetically impeccable decision that was appreciated and adopted by many famous architects of the era of the European Renaissance.

Its in various variations began to include in projects:

  • of the monarch of palaces;
  • Summer Residences of Kings;
  • private faithful venels;
  • garden-park compositions.

Approximately from the XVI century, Belvedere acquired a wider interpretation and many architectural modifications. So they began to call not only separately standing open buildings, extensions and add-ons, but also whole palace complexes with spacious terraces with wide galleries and massive columns.

Such structures were always erected on the hill, dominant over the surrounding terrain and symbolizing the power of the monarch or Velmazby. Retrospectively Belvedere became a kind of bridge, thrown away from ancient architecture to pompous Renaissance trends.

This architectural element acquired a particular popularity of the royal style of Baroque. Here, the classic Belvedere acquired a lush decor rich in stucco, new forms and composite techniques. Not left aside church-temple style.

Pashkov's house is also considered to be Belvedere

Such a name was entrenched for numerous large-scale religious structures and palace-park complexes posted in beautiful natural -Craft surroundings. Belvedere came to Russia in the XVIII century and absorbed the authentic traditions of Russian architecture.

Well-known palaces

in Europe there are a large number of architectural complexes in the style of Belvedere. Large-scale structures in the form of separate buildings often contain inside a spacious room with high walls, cutting figured or arc-arched openings. Another version of European Belveders is a multifaceted structure.

The most famous palaces of Europe of this type are oval or the correct round shape with windows and wide input openings. These include Vienna Belvedere, Weimar, Nestretsky and others. Below are the most famous and most visited tourists palaces of such style.

In Vienna

, the palace-park ensemble is considered the main attraction of the Austrian capital. Made in the best architectural traditions of Baroque style. The castle complex is represented by the lower and top belveders.

It includes:

  1. Orangery. It has a collapsible roof and removable southern facade.
  2. Page Hall.
  3. Three-level cascade type park. It is laid in 1803 and is considered the first artificial alpine complex.
  4. Stables. They are now converted to the exhibition of modern visual art.
  5. Research Center. It holds artistic expertise and the study of the subjects of the European cultural heritage.

Belvedere of the Austrian capital is harmoniously embedded in the landscaped medium and built on the elevation, as it should be the architectural complexes of this type. This is a pretentious and pompous royal palace, decorated with stepped cascades of fountains, separately standing by baroque statues and sculptural groups.

The attention of tourists attracts massive wrought-iron gates with elegant decor with a large number of twisted parts. Since 1903, the largest museum of fine art in Austria is located on the territory of the complex. Initially, the draft Vienna Belvedere was conceived as a summer residence of the winner of the Ottoman Empire of Prince Evgenia Savoy.

The architect of a magnificent complex, located just south of Rennvega, chose Johann von Hildebirdt - one of the most sought-after Viennese military and court engineers.

Among the works of the Creator of Belvedere for Evgeny Savoy, it is:

Construction Short description
Count Garrachi PalaceTypical sample of high baroque. The main architectural decorations are the altar of the chapel of white marble and a wide front staircase.
Mirabel Palace in Salzburgwas made in a romantic style and built into part of Salome Alt - the beloved Archbishop of Dietrich von Reteenau. The most luxurious room of the complex is the marble hall. Now there is a marriage ceremony.
Church of St. PeterRoman Catholic religious construction in Vienna. Interesting architectural feature - inclined towers on both sides of the main dome.
The chapel of St. John Nepomockis designed in the style of baroque gothic and has the form of the pentagram.

This famous Austrian architect of his time was responsible for all the construction projects of Prince Evgenia Savoy. The construction of the Lower Belvedere began in 1712, and ended 1723. The station of the palace is strengthened by 9 spans and the Quartet of the Atlanta to avoid the possible collapse of the massive structure.

The park complex is distinctly symmetrical along the central axis. In the lower belvedere there is a marble gallery, a grotesque hall, a front bedroom. The residence of the prince was the upper part of the complex. This belvedere has a majestic façade with huge sculptures.

Here, during the time of the Prince of Savoy, magnificent balls and masquerades were held. Invited guests entered the territory of the residence through the forged gates, on the sides of which there were huge iron lions with coats of arms on their paws. The architecture of the entrance alley is decorated in the original style of a three-arch pavilion.

The pompous interior of the upper belvedere is organically complemented by lush interior decoration and pretentious wall decoration. The unusual natural charm of the structure is added by the roof structure, which is a rounded multi-level tents resembling the hills that surround the palace.

In the Vatican

The Belvedere Palace of the Papal Convent is a world famous monument of Renaissance architecture. Wide galleries are decorated with masterpieces of art from different times. The building harmoniously fits into the ensemble of Vatican palaces. The artistic value and unique appearance of the pompous building made it a tourist Mecca.

The construction of the palace began in 1484 by Pope Innocent VIII. Several well-known architects were involved in the project at the same time. The main elements of the complex were built in the 15th century.

These include:

  1. The Borgia Halls, erected under Pope Nicholas V and served as living quarters.
  2. Chapel built during the reign of Pope Sixte IV. The spacious hall has dimensions of 40x13 m and a height of 26 m. Michelangelo himself was engaged in painting the vault and the altar wall.
  3. Courtyard-museum with a spiral staircase. His project was Bramante.
  4. Courtyard of San Damaso. It has a spectacular domed ceiling.

The Belvedere is such a building in the Vatican, the construction of which lasted for several centuries by different generations of architects. The palace is a large rectangular structure with a pair of gallery lintels forming courtyards.

In one of them, tournaments and various festive events were previously held. It has now been converted into a car park. In other courtyards of the Vatican belvedere, art exhibitions are on display for everyone to see.

The architectural complex has an exquisite interior decoration and openwork interior. Outside, the palace is decorated with massive columns with stucco, arched openings and air passages. Inside there is a spacious central hall of a round shape.

The Sistine Chapel is part of the ensemble of the Belvedere Palace in the Vatican

The Vatican Palace impresses with its unusual and aesthetically flawless highly artistic design, rich furnishings and magnificent wall decor. An exclusive detail of the structure is a niche with an original geometric configuration, designed by the architect Pirro Ligorio.

A sphere recessed into the wall with a semi-dome crowning it creates an optical illusion of being inside the palace and outside at the same time. It opens onto a square courtyard that houses the museum of Pope Clement XIV.

The space formed by the gallery lintels has an unusual shape with 8 faces. This courtyard adjoins the end wall of the Belvedere Palace. Tourists can get into it through one of the 2 vestibules - quadrangular or round, where the Meleagra hall is located.

Inside the building there are galleries of tapestries and geographical maps. An unusual architectural landmark of the complex is a fountain in the form of a giant cone cast in bronze. It reaches a height of 4 m. The Rotunda Hall, which functions as a vestibule, is decorated in the traditions of classicism of the 18th century.

In Peterhof

The palace, erected by Nicholas I for his wife, Empress Alexandra, is located on the Babigonskaya Upland in Lugovoi Park. Belvedere strikes with royal luxury and pathos. From the landscape park surrounding the building, a bewitching panorama of the surroundings of Peterhof opens up.

The architecture of the palace resembles the ancient Greek temple Erechtheion in Athens, which was inspired by the Russian emperor. The layout of Lugovoy Park is organized in such a way that it is connected by a network of paths with other similar objects of Peterhof.

On the territory there are pavilions with towers, which house observation platforms and the emperor's offices. Belvedere architecture organically combines utilitarian and aesthetic functions.

There are:

  • the royal mill;
  • a pink pavilion designed in a romantic spirit and intended personally for Empress Alexandra;
  • unusual fake ruin;
  • an open terrace overlooking St. Petersburg.

The pompous Belvedere Palace is a large-scale two-story structure in the shape of an elongated rectangle. It is set on a massive granite base. The front facade is made in the style of an antique portico, typical of the architecture of ancient Hellas. It is decorated with caryatids made of Serdobol granite.

Their author is the sculptures by A. Terebenev, who made atlantes for the Hermitage. The wide main staircase with marble statues on the sides attracts attention. In the basement of the imperial belvedere there are 28 granite columns supporting the ceiling.

The gaps between them are filled with openwork forged gratings, which give the structure additional rigidity. On the first floor of the belvedere there is a spacious front hall with 10 columns made of Carrara marble. The floor of the room is decorated with antique mosaics in the ancient Roman spirit.

A cast-iron staircase leads to the second floor of the Belvedere Palace. There is a spacious hall with access to an open observation terrace. On the sides of the main staircase there are sculptural compositions "Taming the Horses" by P. Klodt.

At 300 m from the pink pavilion there is a church designed in the traditions of ancient Russian architecture. The Hellenic style is applied not only in the design of the appearance of the Belvedere Palace. Furniture sets were selected in accordance with ancient Greek trends to create compositional harmony.

The ground floor of the building is a podium with high window openings. During the reign of Nicholas I, the imperial offices, chamber junkers and lackeys were located here.

The Belvedere is a building in Peterhof that looks like a palace floating in the air. From the terrace of the airy and elegant structure, a view of the Gulf of Finland, Ropsha Heights, St. Isaac's Cathedral opens.

In Warsaw

Belvedere of the Polish capital is located in the picturesque Royal Lazienki park. The openwork structure stands on a steep elevated cliff. From here you have a breathtaking view of the surroundings. Erected in the 16th century, the Belvedere Palace is designed in the spirit of architectural classicism.

The facade of the building is decorated mainly in light colors, which creates a unique feeling of lightness and visually expands the spatial boundaries. The brightness of the structure is emphasized by the colonnades placed at the main entrance. The interiors are finished with exquisite interior elements.

Among them:

  • pompous pieces of Empire style furniture;
  • white marble sculpture groups;
  • natural stone fireplaces;
  • velvet and brocade drapery;
  • works of Polish painters.

The author of the project of the royal palace of the Polish capital is the architect Jakub Kubicki. There is a picturesque walking alley in the surrounding park. The palace overlooks the man-made lake with swans.

In Prague

An airy and luxurious building in the spirit of the European Renaissance is located in the Royal Gardens of the Czech capital. The palace was designed by the Italian architect Paolo della Stella. A particularly impressive feature of the structure is the gallery of arcades with carved stone bas-reliefs. The palace is crowned with an ornamental figured frieze 80 cm high. On the walls of the interior there are 144 unique reliefs of mythological, hunting and military themes. They are made of fine-grained sandstone. The work of the stonemasons impresses with its precision and accentuated attention to detail.

The construction of the summer part of the belvedere was completed in 1563 by the architects Hans Tyrol and Bonifitius Wohlmuth. The palace was equipped with a unique copper roof in the shape of an inverted ship. It contained alternating red and white lines, which symbolized the national flag of the Czech kingdom.

Living rooms were located on the first floor of the building. They are decorated with openwork arcades. On the second floor there was a dance hall and a long wide gallery. An astronomical observatory was also set up here. Under Joseph II, an artillery laboratory operated in the summer palace.

In 1836, a complete reconstruction of the building was carried out with placement inside the art gallery. Paintings on historical themes were made on the walls of the halls and the hall on the second floor. Since the 1950s, after restoration, the palace has been open to tourists.

Near the summer part of the Belvedere there is an original singing fountain. This place invariably attracts increased attention of visitors. The fountain was designed by Francesco Terzio. Such an attraction is cast from bell bronze. Water droplets falling on a metal surface create a special melody.

Video about the Belvedere

History of the Belvedere Palace in Peterhof: