Estonia. Attractions on the map, photo, cities, capital, interesting places, what to see for a tourist

Estonia - small Our European country with a rich cultural heritage, amazing sights of ancient cities with narrow streets and pointed spiers, picturesque landscapes of dense forests with swamps and the coast. This is a country that many associate with marzipan, mulled wine and reindeer woolen products.

Significance of the state in the modern world

Estonia is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea and consists not only of the mainland, but also of more than 2 thousand nearby islands. In the north, the Republic is washed by the Gulf of Finland (borders on Finland), in the west - by the waters of the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, has land borders with Latvia in the south and with Russia in the east.

The territory of the country covers an area of ​​45.2 thousand square meters. km. The capital is one of the oldest cities in the state - Tallinn.

The history of Estonia has more than 10 thousand years and dates back to the Mesolithic period. formed by the end of the ninth century. Finno-Ugric settlements were constantly threatened by attacks from the sea, and in the XIII century. the territory was conquered by the crusaders and became part of the Livonian Order. The country survived the era of the Reformation, the rule of Sweden, the Russian Empire, the German occupation.

The state acquired its final independence in 1991, leaving the USSR. Modern Estonia is a technologically advanced state with a favorable environmental situation, good tourism infrastructure and a policy aimed at preserving cultural and natural heritage.

You can get from Moscow to the capital of Estonia in one of the following ways:

  • by direct flight - a ticket from 13 thousand rubles;
  • by flight with a transfer in Riga, Helsinki, Minsk - from 6 thousand rubles.rub.;
  • by the Baltic Express train - from 3.5 thousand rubles;
  • by bus - from 2 thousand rubles;
  • by car - from 4 thousand rubles.

Estonia is a member of the EU, therefore, to visit it, Russian citizens will need a Schengen visa (valid throughout the EU), which can be issued both at the Embassy and with the help of a travel agency.

A visa can be:

  • single entry - for a period not exceeding 90 days;
  • multi-visa - for multiple entry into the country (up to 1 year);
  • tourist - the easiest way to draw up, the most common type.

The cost of obtaining a visa fluctuates within 5.5 thousand rubles. A prerequisite for obtaining it is the availability of a medical insurance policy with a minimum coverage of 30 thousand euros.

Climate

The country is located in a temperate zone with transitional climatic zones - from maritime in the north and west to continental in the southeast. Its weather conditions are significantly affected by cyclones coming from the sea.

As a result, summers in Estonia are cool and humid, and the proximity of the Gulf Stream results in moderately warm weather in winter compared to other mainland states. The influence of Atlantic cyclones is especially pronounced in the autumn and winter months, when air masses from the sea bring precipitation and gusty winds to the continent.

There are no severe frosts in winter in Estonia, snow cover in many areas remains from mid-December to the end of March. The coldest month, with average daily temperatures up to -4 C, is January. At night, the temperature drops by another 2 - 3 C. Winter coolness is often replaced by thaws with warm winds coming from the coast.

The second half of spring (from April to May), like the beginning of autumn, is characterized by warm weather with minimal precipitation, and the air warms up to + 11 C. However, there are frosts at night. Estonian summers are comfortable, moderately warm, with average temperatures of +16 C.

In the first month of summer, temperatures often drop below 0 C at night, but in the second half of June the air warms up more. The warmest month is July, when the temperature can rise to + 25 C. Precipitation, which varies within 700 mm, is distributed evenly throughout the year both on the mainland and in the coastal zone and islands.

Population

About 1.3 million people live in Estonia, the number of which has steadily declined since the country's secession from the Soviet Union. Most of the ethnic composition (about 70%) make up indigenous Estonians, descendants of the ancient tribes of Estaurants, the rest of the share falls on immigrants from the CIS countries and the nearest neighbors - Russians, Belarusians, Germans, Finns, Ukrainians.

The official language of the country is Estonian, but in everyday life you can hear Russian, Ukrainian, English and German speech.

Residents of the country relate to religion with a fair sharing of skepticism, adhering to atheistic views. The most common religions are Orthodoxy (about 17% of the population) and Lutheranism (10%). Estonians are distinguished by hard work, tranquility, discreet and silent character, honesty and direct.

and restraint manifests itself in many ways - in communicating and welcome, in the service sector (in stores and hotels), in the practical interior of housing. Residents are proud of their centuries-old traditions, preserved today. On the days of mass guys, many passers-by dress in national costumes.

they, as well as many centuries ago, it is customary to celebrate with songs and dancing holiday Ivan Kupala and a harvest holiday, and the bride is still the same, to complete the marriage ceremony, we have a traditional headdress of a married woman, kidnap with Release request.

The only sharp topic, which is not recommended to affect communicating with Estonians, is the joint past of Estonia and Russia. You should not talk about the small sizes of the territory of the state in comparison with other countries, which can be perceived as a derogatory insult.

The currency in Estonia is a single currency on the territory of Estonia, as in other EU countries participating in the European Union. Until 2011, the national currency was used - the Estonian Crown. Going on the trip, it is best to exchange money at home at a more advantageous course.
Estonia is a state that is part of the European Union, so the currency is euro.

In addition to cash, it is possible to pay and bank cards, especially since even in small souvenir shops or markets there are payment terminals, and the ATMs are found everywhere. However, it should be borne in mind that in rural areas the situation is a little different and for traveling may take cash.

The best exchange rate, of course, in banks. He is not very different in exchange offices. It is less profitable to change money in the exchanger of airports and train stations, as well as in hotels. It is worth paying attention to the commission, which usually does not exceed 2 euros, and can be significantly varied depending on the selected exchange point. Banks work only on weekdays, from 9 to 18 hours.

Features of nature

Estonia, whose sights can be seen not only in large cities, but also in sparsely populated areas, is distinguished by the amazing beauty of primeval nature. Slightly less than half of the territory is covered with dense forests interspersed with swamps. This is facilitated by a flat relief with lowlands and small plateaus in the central part.

Woodland with small marshes gives way to meadows with lakes, of which there are about 1.5 thousand in the country. Estonia has many rivers and several waterfalls. To preserve the unique nature of the country, the state creates many wildlife sanctuaries and reserves.

The islands of the Republic are practically uninhabited by humans, and are home to many migratory birds. In total, there are more than 300 species of birds in Estonia, including: storks, cranes, capercaillie, black grouse, woodcocks. Crackels and sandpipers are becoming less and less common.

The fauna is less diverse and is represented by almost 60 species of mammals: elk, wild boar, roe deer, lynx, brown bear. European mink and flying squirrels are on the verge of extinction from the natural environment of Estonia.

National dishes

Traditional Estonian dishes are not distinguished by a wide assortment and delights, and the recipes for their preparation have not changed for centuries. However, they are very satisfying and combine all sorts of meat, fish and dairy products with minimal seasoning. Mostly food is stewed or boiled, and fried foods are less common.

The most popular dishes in Estonia are:

  • milk soup is a common first course with a wide variety of recipes;
  • Tallinn spicy sprat;
  • aspic;
  • kartulipors - pork baked in mashed potatoes;
  • Sauerkraut mulgicapsid stew with pork;
  • salted herring;
  • Everest blood sausages;
  • onion jam;
  • Piparkukas pepper biscuits;
  • marzipan sweets.

Red beer, juniper beer, ale, cranberry juice, kaerakile oatmeal jelly and mulled wine are considered traditional drinks. Vana Tallinn and Kanni Kukk liqueurs are popular among tourists.

Do not miss the most popular article of the rubric: Belbek Canyon is a unique natural monument.

When to go

Estonia is a picturesque Baltic country with many interesting sights and a wide variety of recreational activities. It is interesting for tourism, both in summer and in winter.

The high tourist season is from May to September, when the fine summer days are perfect for sightseeing and the water is warm enough for swimming (in July and August). The comfortable temperature of summer does not promise burns and exhausting heat.

The largest number of water activities for adults and children are on the island of Saaremaa and the resort town of Pärnu.

In winter, the influx of tourists is observed during the Christmas and New Year holidays, from mid-December to mid-January. Street festivities and fun fairs are accompanied by traditional sales. At this time, one of the most significant public holidays is celebrated - Independence Day (February 24). Winter will also delight ski lovers.

There are no high mountains in the country, but the gentle slopes of the hills and equipped trails in the reserves are perfect for skiing, sledding, snowmobiling. The second half of spring and the beginning of autumn should be devoted to numerous attractions.

The cost of excursions and accommodation at this time of the year is an order of magnitude lower, and there are much fewer tourists. Although in the high season the price tag for holidays in Estonia is not so high in comparison with other European countries, and is considered a budget destination.

Transport

Estonia's transport network is well developed, bus and rail links cover all major cities of the country. Guests of the Republic prefer buses, as the travel time by train is longer. Between the large islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) and the mainland, domestic flights are carried out, ferry crossings are provided.

An interesting fact is that for officially registered citizens of many regions of Estonia, public urban transport is free. However, this rule does not apply to tourists.

​​
Mode of transport Fare Working hours Features
Domestic flightsFrom 26 EUR one way.The schedule varies depending on the tourist season.Flights to the islands operate daily, and their number may vary depending on the time of year. The flight takes up to 40 minutes.
Intercity bus serviceIntercity trips - from 0.06 euros per 1 km.Departures to popular destinations every hour.The only way other than by car is to reach remote and little visited settlements.
urban public transport
  • from 1.2 euros per trip, in the capital - 2 euros;
  • Travel on the tourist Tallinn Card for 1.2 or 3 days (from 25 to 45 euros);
  • A single ticket - 3 euros per day.
from 05:30 to 00:00presented by buses, trolley buses and trams. In all these modes of transport, there is a single travel.

Tallinn Card in addition to free travel provides free excursions with a visit to many attractions.

Railway communicationabout 2 euros per suburban trip, about 0.2 euros per 1 km of way.around the clockthe number of long-distance trains is reduced due to the lack of great demand, most often tourists use suburban trains for inspection of surrounding attractions.
Taxiabout 0.8 euros per 1 km + landing rate from 2.5 euros.around the clockis in demand at night, when municipal transport stops work.
Car rentalfrom 20 euros per day + Initial deposit from 800 euros.around the clockMovement of right-hand, high-speed limitations in settlements no more than 50 km / h.
Ferry Messagefrom 3 euros per person, about 9 euros per passenger car.In the tourist season, flights are carried out every 30 - 40 minutes.connects major islands with land. At the order of the lowest flight.

The best cities for tourism

Estonia, the sights of which are predominantly cultural and historical nature, in addition to saturated excursion tours ready to offer tourists beach holidays, active hiking natural beauties, rest in sanatoriums with mineral springs.

Tallinn

The capital of Estonia retained the charm of the medieval city, the first mentions of which are referred to by the XII century. The heart of Tallinn and the main tourist area is the old city with narrow pedestrian streets, pointed spiers of turrets with flora, and many vintage buildings.

The history of the Central Town Hall Square, from where all the excursions begin, originates in the XIV century. No less interesting and picturesque urban embankment. In the capital, various festivals and folklore holidays that attract tourists are regularly held.

It is worth viewing in the city:

  • Town Hall Square.
  • Chernogol's Brotherhood House.
  • urban wall.
  • Cathedral Alexander Nevsky.
  • Dome Cathedral.
  • Tompea Castle.
  • urban zoo.

Pärnu

This is a small vintage city on the Baltic coast with magnificent beaches and well-kept parks. The resort is famous not only by snow-white sandy beaches with shallow water, but also therapeutic peat mud. Here are the best SPA centers and health resorts of the country.

Urban attractions:

  • Red Tower;
  • City Museum;
  • Church of St. Elizabeth;
  • Main Street Ryutli;
  • Tallinn Gate;
  • The largest water park in the country.

Tartu

The oldest city of Baltic States, the basis of the foundation of which dates from the beginning of the XI century. Tartu is located in the east of the country, not far from Lake Peipsey. It is often referred to as the city of museums, and many historical sights are sheaven with mystical legends. Local residents believe that the Tomorrow with the ancient ruins of the temple lives the real cast.

Attractions of the city:

  • Town Hall with urban square;
  • Tome Hill on the site of ancient settlement, with the ruins of the Gothic Cathedral;
  • Church of St. John;
  • Tartus University;
  • Numerous museums of the city.

Kuressaare

is the only major city of Saaremaa Island, on the banks of the Gulf of Riga. His name in Russian sounds like a stork island, which is quite justified by a large number of these birds that have become one of the sights of the island. Tourists here attract sandy beaches with warm water of the bay, the beauty of nature and a calm measured vacation with a good service.

Popular attractions:

  • Castle Kuressaare with a museum;
  • Town Hall;
  • Swedish;
  • Church of St. Lawrence;
  • Lake Kaali;
  • Windmills island.

Rakvere

This is a city in the north of the country, 100 km east of Tallinn. He attracts tourists with ancient architectural attractions dated XIII century. The city is characterized by a quiet and measured life, the special spirit of medieval cobbled streets.

Main attractions:

  • Ancient castle with a museum;
  • Lutheran Church of St. Trinity;
  • Statue of Bull Tarvas;
  • Interactive Museum of Police.

What to see in Estonia

Estonia (attractions of the republic and its unique original culture) annually attract a large flow of tourists, exceeding the total population of the country. This direction is also popular among Russian tourists who prefer budget holidays in a neighboring state to other European countries.

Architectural and historical sights

Most of Estonia's architectural attractions are elevated in the style of medieval Gothic XIII - XVIII century. Later monuments were carried out under the influence of modern, replacing angular and coarse gothic forms on elegant art elements in the decor.

List of sights:

  • The urban wall is a business card of Tallinn, it was built in defensive purposes in the XIII century. and consisted of almost 50 guard towers around the perimeter. Many of them are preserved in good condition today. The height of the wall reaches 20 m. In the 4-storey tower with the name, the fat Margarita is open to the maritime museum, and a military museum has a military museum. Find the wall is easy - she is looking for the old town. The most visited towers with museums are located on the 2 opposite sides of the wall: the thick Maria in the northern part, on Picc Street and the Kick Tower in the south, on the street of Comandandi (opposite Harumägi Park). In the tourist season, museums are open to 18 hours, and in winter, opening hours can decline. The cost of the entrance ticket - 6 euros.
  • The Castle of Tompea - towers above Tallinn on the hill of the same name, a little west of the tower of the fortress wall of Kik-In-de-Kek, opposite Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. Architectural building XIII century. Preserved in good condition, and the Estonian Parliament is located on its territory. The best views of the panorama of the city are opened with a high observation deck of one of the castle towers. Get inside the fortress and climb to the viewing tower only as part of an organized excursion, from 9 to 16 hours. Visit of the castle for free.
  • Castle in Rakver - the fortress dates back to the XIII century. Tourists attracts a unique museum of archaeological finds found during the excavations in the vicinity of the castle, as well as theatrical submissions and the recreated atmosphere of the Middle Ages, where everyone can practice the archery, try on Knight's armor or to visit the castle dungeons with the torture chamber. The castle is located near the city center, the nearest public transport stop - Tarva. It is open to a visit to the tourist season from 10 to 19 hours. In winter, the schedule of work can change. The cost of the entrance ticket - 9 euros.

Museums

The Estonian Museum Fund is distinguished by the variety of historical finds and artefacts, rich cultural heritage and the latest achievements of scientific and technological progress. The country has quite interesting and unusual museums: cinema, meteoritics, a museum of cameras, marzipan, computer technology, police, a military museum, a mine-museum.

List:

  • Rocca al Mare is an open-air museum in the forested area of ​​Tallinn, on the southwestern shore of the bay Copley. Several dozen houses and outbuildings dating back to the 17th-20th centuries. accurate to the details reproduce the interior and exterior of the dwellings of that time. There is also a tavern styled after that era with traditional Estonian dishes. On holidays, theatrical performances are arranged. In summer, the museum is open until 20:00, and the entrance ticket costs 10 euros. The nearest public transport stop is named after the museum.
  • Angla Museum is a windmill museum on the island of Saaremaa. In addition to 5 active open-air mills, the museum complex houses the Cultural Heritage Center with traditional craft workshops where you can try to bake bread or make an earthenware jug, as well as a cafe with national dishes and souvenir shops. In summer, the museum is open until 20:00, and in winter until 17:00. Ticket price - 3.5 euros, with a guided tour - 6 euros. The museum is located in the north of the island, along highway N 79, and the easiest way to get there is by car or as part of an organized tour.
  • Police Museum – dedicated to the history and work of the Estonian police service, forgery, espionage and the most notorious investigations. Tourists are invited to try on the uniform of law enforcement officers, solve a complicated riddle or take fingerprints. The museum is located in Rakvere, along Tallinn Street, just north of the ancient castle. It is open from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., the entrance fee is 7 euros.

Religious objects

Estonia has preserved many historical monuments of religious significance, which are in no way inferior to the beauty and rich past of ancient castles and mansions.

List:

  • Alexander Nevsky Cathedral - erected at the beginning of the 20th century opposite Toompea Castle, and is the main Orthodox shrine of the capital. The five-domed cathedral with dark domes and gilded crosses is decorated with mosaics by Russian masters, and the icons for the iconostasis were painted in the best art workshops of St. Petersburg. The temple is open to tourists in the morning, until 10:00. It is allowed to visit it only in closed clothes and hats.
  • Oleviste Church – 13th century St. Olaf Baptist Church. For a long time it was the tallest religious building in the world, until the tower with the spire was destroyed by fire. Today, the height of the church is almost 124 m, which is 35 m lower than the building that burned down earlier. According to the law, the height of new buildings in the center of Tallinn cannot exceed the height of the church. The building is located in the Old Town, just south of the Fat Margaret's Tower, and is open to the public until 18:00. The entrance to the observation deck of the tower costs 3 euros.
  • St. Elizabeth's Church is a baroque Lutheran church built in the city of Pärnu in the middle of the 18th century. It houses the best organ in the country and often hosts music concerts. The church is located a little to the west of Koidula Park, along Nikolai Street. Divine services are held mainly in the morning, until 10 am.

Natural attractions

lowlands, protected reserves and mysterious meteorite craters.

List:

  • Toila-Oru is a park in the vicinity of the village of Tola, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland in northeastern Estonia. It was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. and belonged to the merchant Eliseev. Later, the summer residence of the rulers of Estonia was located here, but the palace did not survive the Second World War and was completely destroyed. The main attractions of the park: a grotto with a stream, a gazebo Swallow's Nest above the cliff of the bay, wooden sculptures, numerous fountains and equipped walking areas. The park is open all year round and admission is free.
  • Jägala Waterfall – one of the largest waterfalls in Estonia, is located on the Jägala River, 25 km east of Tallinn. It is formed by an overhanging rocky ledge 8 m high, under which you can walk along the entire 50-meter width of the waterfall. The waterfall reaches its maximum size and strength during the spring flood, when its width increases to 20 m. It is under state protection, and special picnic areas are equipped in the coastal zone. In winter, the waterfall freezes, forming a picturesque ice wall. You can get to it by car, moving from Tallinn to the east along the road to the village of Jõelähtme, after which you need to turn left onto the secondary Koogi road.
  • Lake Kaali is a perfectly round reservoir with a diameter of 110 m, formed by a crater as a result of the fall of fragments of a huge meteorite more than 3.5 thousand years ago. In addition to the largest lake Kaali, there are 8 smaller craters in its vicinity, also filled with water. According to local legends, on the site of the lake there was a church, which, after the wedding of a brother and sister in it, was swallowed up by the bowels of the earth. The crater is located in the forest near the village of Kaali, 19 km northeast of the city of Kuressaare on the island of Saaremaa.

Where to go with children

Estonia, whose sights can impress not only with a rich historical heritage, but also with modern entertainment, is perfect for an active holiday with the whole family - visiting museums with educational interactive equipment, walks in numerous parks and recreational areas, zoos and water parks.

Where to go:

  • Marzipan Museum - located in Tallinn, on Pikk Street, a few minutes walk north of the Brotherhood House Chernogolov. The museum presents all kinds of figurines and expositions made of marzipan, and special modeling workshops are held for children. There is also a cafe and a shop with sweets. The museum is open from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., the entrance ticket costs from 5 euros.
  • Tallinn Zoo - is located in the west of the capital, almost opposite the Rocca al Mare Museum, covering an area of ​​more than 80 hectares. In addition to its main inhabitants with more than 350 species, young visitors will be interested in children's playgrounds and regular animation, a petting zoo, a tropical pavilion and an insect hall. The zoo is open until 19:00, the entrance ticket in the summer season is 8 euros for adults and 5 euros for children.
  • Pärnu Aquapark is the largest amusement park in Estonia. It is located on the territory of the Spa Tervis Paradis 4 * hotel on Side street, on the coast of the Pärnu Bay with magnificent beaches. The two-story aquatic center has indoor pools, a heated outdoor pool, an artificial river, slides of different heights and a children's area. In summer, the water park is open from 10 am to 10 pm, and in winter from 11 am. The entrance fee is 16 euros (3-hour ticket) or 21 euros for the whole day for adults and 4 euros for children.

What to bring as souvenirs

As a souvenir from Estonia, you can bring things from world brands, as well as some unique goods that characterize the life and culture of the country, gastronomic features.

For example:

  • alcohol is the most popular gift from Estonia, along with traditional magnets. Not only various types of liquor are used in demand, but also local beer (classic or tasteful fruits and berries);
  • chocolate tiles and sweets from marzipan;
  • Estonian cheese;
  • Person Pubcicks;
  • woolen things with traditional ornament deer;
  • jewelery and handmade skin products;
  • Ceramics and colored glass figures.

Estonia with its numerous attractions and the beauty of wildlife became a popular tourist destination, while still as part of the USSR. Even then, Estonia's cities reconciled from other regions of the Soviet Union, and adventure lovers sought here in search of new impressions and scarce goods.

The war and oppression by other states could not significantly change the traditional way of the proud Estonian people, and the influence of ancient customs and rites is still traced in numerous festivals and folk holidays.

Registration of Articles: Lozinsky Oleg

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