Empire State Building. Height, photo, how many floors, where it is located, construction history, interesting facts

Until 1971, the skyline of New York was dominated by one building - the Empire State Building and, despite the fact that it lost the title of the most tallest building in the world when the North Tower of the Twin Towers was still under construction, it never lost its cult status in the world of skyscraper architecture.

Architecture of the Empire State Building

Designed in the Art Deco style typical of New York architecture from 1920 to 1939, the skyscraper was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. At the same time, it was once separated from the architectural tradition, the one that gives it its most characteristic features.

Despite its streamlined profile, flaming interiors, palpable symbolism, and revolutionary steel frame, the skyscraper did not inspire Art Deco appreciation among early adopters. And unlike its contemporaries, such as the Chrysler Building and the Rockefeller Center, the Empire State was surprisingly late in becoming the flagship of this architectural movement.

Even in the New York Art Deco Society, the logo shows the Chrysler Building and Rockefeller Center, but not the Empire State.

The initial confusion was cleared up after an interview with a member of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission and wife of the skyscraper's chief architect, Mrs. Lamb. She recalled that William Frederick Lamb called Art Deco "Little Nemo".

"Little Nemo" is an elaborate newspaper comic, Winsor McKay's masterpiece, famous for its detailed depictions of vistas, city skylines, and architectural details. In her opinion, the decorative facade of the Chrysler Building is a vivid expression of the Little Nemo architecture. While the Empire State's clean and elegant structure looks defiantly classic.

As a temporary style that bridged the gap between traditional and modern, Art Deco contains paradoxes that are difficult to explain in a nutshell, but they give the style its particularity.

Demonstrating the wealth of a new commercial class he - Bunlet; innovative, thanks to the use of innovative materials; Classic, in an attempt to remain symbolic through the frescoes and motifs. Elements and designs from gilding, chromium, marble make it decorative.

William Frederick Lamb refused to decorate the facade of eaves and other architectural elements to ensure a continuous flow into the building.

The streamlined profile of Empire State Building, emphasizing the passion for the AR-Deco movement, speed and aerodynamics, the dizzying height of the building became possible due to the emergence of new technologies, in particular the steel frame, which was designed to cope with the gravitational stress and Wind Loads.

Ar-Deco-style buildings quickly mastered new materials, steel and reinforced concrete. At the same time, "modern" materials became a leitmotif of the development of competition among the buildings of the Art Deco. In the 1920s-1930s, there was an unprecedented growth of metallurgical and concrete companies that tried to make their materials the main products for construction.

They sought to benefit from the aesthetic and commercial popularity of Ar Deco. Empire State Building, the height of which on the roof of 381m, still dominates the accumulation of skyscrapers in the center of Manhattan, confidently competing with modern colosums - the tower of the context and the tower of the Bank of America.

The movement of the Ar Deco coincided with events in urban planning, sought to make urban space more suitable for living. In 1920-1930, comprehensive zoning laws were adopted, which influenced even to seemingly irrelevant features like a form of balconies and windows.

​​

The streamlined profile can be understood and as a response to the laws on zoning, which prevented vertical construction on the entire site to allow the poor sunlight to reach the dense streets of Manhattan.

Architects have chosen for cladding proven limestone time from Indiana, which gives the building a corporate bright color and classical attractiveness. What typically for ar-deco over the entrance you can see two eagles in the Egypt-sensing style to emphasize the legendary status of the building.

Similar decorations play an important role in the Ar-Deco buildings, connecting modernity with the idealized mythical past. Eagles - a symbol of political, economic and military power of America and here their stylized representation gives the building the status of a revered monument built into a new industrial era.

Limestone is not the only material that adorns the facade of a stunning skyscraper. Limestone walls contrast with chromonicel steel. The vertical stripes of chromonichel steel limit the windows (from the sixth to eighty-fifth floor), crowned with fan-like motifs that are interpreted as solar flares.

The combination of such materials is an excellent attempt to achieve a balance between ornament and elegance, tradition and modernity. This is what contributed to the creation of aesthetics, which was industrial, but at the same time exquisite.

History Empire State Building

Some facilities exceed their physical dimensions. Associated with innovative ideas and memories, in addition to the utilitarian value providing inhabited space, they become powerful symbols of the era, space, spirit. They cause bright images and interesting stories in the imagination.

Empire State Building, whose height is 443.2 m, - the embodiment of the financial and commercial success of the city.

In the late 1920s, when the New York economy flourished as ever, architects and builders were in a crazy desire to build the highest skyscraper in the world.

The main race, painted as "Race Into The Sky" (Race in the sky), was held between Wall Street, 40 (today known as Trump-Building) and Chrysler-Building, a complex structure in the style of Ar Deco, conceived by car magnate Walter Chrysler as "Monument to Me" ("Monument for me").

But a serious struggle flashed in August 1929, when Executive Director General Motors John Jacob Dulk decided to leave his mark in the race, tuned against the founder of Chrysler Corporation, Walter Chrysler. Cutting and former Governor of New York Alfred Emanuel "El" Smith announced plans to build Empire State Building.

Without paying attention to the impending great collapse of the stock market, in 1929, industrialists related to General Motors are united for the sake of the idea of ​​building the highest building In the world in Manhattan, which would be eclipsed in the neighborhood, the skyscraper belonging to the competitor - Chrysler Building.

The place for construction on Fifth Avenue between the 33rd and 34th streets was occupied by the exclusive hotel Waldorf-Astoria, which was demolished for the sake of the new symbol of American corporate power - Empire State Building.

Having learned that Empire State Building will be in a height of 1000 ft. (304.8 m), Chrysler changed the project once again, securing a narrow stainless steel spire on the top of his skyscraper. But, with the conversion competition, wanting Empire State Building to be the highest in the world, revised projects and added five floors and spire.

New floors were to be discharged, taking into account the projected wind pressure on an extension. Empire State Building, whose height amounted to 1050 ft. (320.04 m) was only 4ft. (1.2 m) higher than Chrysler Building, but the cut was afraid that Chrysler could try to "make a trick, as if hiding a rod in the spiele, and at the last minute he suffered it."

The cutoff headed to the largest model of the building, carefully looked at her and exclaimed: "He needs a hat!" Projects were revised for the last time in December 1929 and included 16-storey, 200-ft. (61 m) Metal "crown" and a moist station 222 ft. (68 m) for airship. The building stretched at 1250 ft. (381 m) even without a spire.

Empire State Building is a phased construction history.

The architectural firm SHREVE, Lamb and Harmon Associates, was selected for the design of the colossus. William Frederick Lamb prepared drawings in just two weeks. For inspiration, Lamb used the Reynolds Building in Winston-Sale (North Carolina) and Carrean Tower in Cincinnati (Ohio), developed by the architectural firm WW Ahlschlager & Associates.

Both buildings are often referred to as architectural ancestors Empire State. In 1979, in honor of the 20th anniversary of Reynolds Building, the Director-General Empire State Building even sent a postcard with the inscription "Happy Anniversary, Dad" (with anniversary, dad). The General Contractor was Starrett Brothers & Eken, a recognized leader in the construction of skyscrapers.

One of the brothers, William A. Starrette, wrote the book "Skyscrapers and people who are building", in it he determined the construction of non-skills as the nearest equivalent of war in peacetime. In 1930 and 1931, the company collected a record of the project called "Notes on the construction of Empire State Building" with black and white photos.

and text, and photos provided a detailed step-by-step description of the process of building a historic skyscraper. Construction began in the early years of the Great Depression. Over the construction of a skyscraper worked every day 3,400 workers, immigrants from Europe and hundreds of metal structures - conventional Mochok Indians from the League of Iroquois.

at least five workers died during construction. The implementation of the project occupied only twelve months from the date of signing the first arquity contract in September 1929 to the official opening on May 1, 1931. Construction ended in 410 days, for three months ahead of the expected period.

He easily surpassed its competitors, raising the New York skyline line to incredible heights. In addition to the impressive height, the speed of construction was also unprecedented. Builders innovated to save time, money and labor.

For example, a railroad system was installed on site with wagons that could carry eight times the weight of a wheelbarrow, making it easier to move materials.

Do not miss the most popular article of the column:Hawaii on the world map - where are, what is unique, rest on the islands.

Lighting and Highlighting

The Empire State Building, whose height is not its only advantage, adorns the New York City skyline with emblematic color displays. Throughout its history, the top of the Empire State Building has been painted in every color imaginable. As The New York Times wrote: "Colored lights make the Empire State Building look like a toy."

In 2010, a dispute over the Empire State Building's rejection of a Catholic League proposal to honor Mother Teresa's centenary with blue and white lights highlighted the building's lighting policy. Building management receives hundreds of requests for lighting every year. The lights of the tower recognize key milestones, events, charity events, holidays, but not political and religious events.

For example:

]
Event Date Color of illumination
Visit of the Pope to New York1979White and gold
Death of Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor2000Red and white
Death of the Pope2005Muted white and gold
China 60th Anniversary2009Red and Yellow
49th Annual Salute Israel!June 1-3, 2012White and blue

Regular black, red and green illumination on Martin Luther King Day, January 20. A number of holidays marked with the lights of the Empire State Building (Christmas, Hanukkah, Eid al-Fitr) also have religious significance.

In a 2003 interview with The New York Times, special events manager Lydia Ruth stated that she regretted some of the commercial coverage options; Microsoft 95 (blue, red, green and yellow), winning the 1995 M&M's Color Campaign blue M&M's, in 1994 the night before the release of the live album "P. U. L. S. E." Pink Floyd (red flashing light).

Justin Bieber may have caused the greatest noise when in 2009 had the honor to highlight the Empire State Building Orange and White in support of the JumpStart's Read for the Record Event event, which stimulates young children to read. But still, technically Herbert Gouver was the first to illuminate Empire State Buildin in 1931 after the completion of construction.

Since the time of the lights of the skyscraper passed through many evolutions - increasing in the amount, changing in color, in some cases, dimmingly. In 1932, the searchlights celebrated victory in the presidential elections of the Democratic Party and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. On the eve of 2008 elections, the skyscraper was displayed as a red color for republicans and blue for democrats.

After the victory of Barack Obama, the building was covered only in blue.

In 1956, four rotating spotlights were added, called "Fires of Freedom", turning the Empire State Building in the Heavenly Lighthouse. The set of lighting for Empire State Building on the 72th floor debuted during the 1964 World Fair.

Since 1976, Douglas Lee stood for colorful lighting achievements. In his career, an advertisement he was an innovator in creating a number of iconic billboards, which depict smoky cups with coffee, cigarette smoke rings, weather displays. He proposed to establish 204 metal-halide lamps, which were four times brighter than 1000 incandescent lamps.

The first show took place on July 4, 1976, when the skyscraper caught fire in red, white and blue. Although some sources say that in fact it applied not to the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary of the nation. July 4 was the birthday of Leona Helmsley, the wife of Harry Pramya Helmsley, who owned Empire State Building.

In 1977, the New York Yankees fans celebrated victory in World Series in the rays of the blue and white light of the new display, which stretched from the 72nd floor to television antenna. In 1992, Harry Helmsley ordered the light to turn off the light On the first night of the imprisonment of Leona for tax evasion. When Harry died in 1997, the building granted a tribute to the owner, having extinguished lighting for 7 days.

In August 2006, an official program for coverage of Empire State Building was developed to verify and approve applications regarding colors. Organizations can query through the building website.

As a rule, no more than three different colors are allowed, but the light exposition in honor of the Grateful Dead exhibition in the New York Historical Society in 2009 glittered in Psychedelic, painted in the color of the rainbow palette.

special cases:

  • 80th anniversary of Frank Sinatra and in 1998 after the death of the great singer the building poured blue color, denoting his nickname "Mr. Blue Eyes";
  • In 2008 - in honor of the release of the new album Mariah Carey (Lavender, Pink and White - Favorite Colors of Mariah);
  • On April 23, 2009, in honor of the 25th anniversary of the first comic book "Ninja Turtle" lights glowing neon-green;
  • Release Simpsons Series (Yellow);
  • 75th anniversary of the character of the sailor go (green, personifying love like spinach);
  • since 1990 in special days awareness of breast cancer (pink);
  • Association of cat lovers (purple, orange and white);
  • Westminster Exhibition of Dogs (Violet and Golden);
  • In 2004, after the death of Fay Ray, the lighting turned off for 15 minutes;
  • In 2008, the lighting turned off in honor of the "Hour of the Earth and the skyscraper was" green ";
  • The 30th anniversary of the formulation of the Ghost of Opera on Broadway (in 1988).

At certain times of the year, the illumination is muffled in order not to distract the migratory birds. The builders of the building have repeatedly rejected the petition for the lighting of gay pride. The situation has changed in 1990, when in honor of the New York Pride, the tower covered with lavender and white color.

between numerous color displays lights light with white or flowers of sports-york sports, when they spend home games. After 9/11, Empire Steight violated the usual schedule and shone red, white and blue all night to calm those who looked at the sky in the first morning clock.

Viewing platforms

Owners Empire State Building love to advertise it as the most famous office building in the world. But the real source of income skyscraper is not 2.7 million square feet of commercial areas occupied by tenants, such as the Federal Corporation for Investigation Deposit.

Modest viewing platforms on 86 and 102 floors are amazingly profitable, especially during the holiday season, when the city is chicted by tourists. The Malkin family, which controls the building does not comment on this topic and stated that the regulators are forbidden to discuss this property.

Empire State Building - Cultural Structure. The pilgrimage of the BBB is committed since it was built; Watching platforms attract four million visitors a year. Views from viewing sites do not disappoint.

In addition, visitors are scheduled:

  • Access for surveillance;
  • Premium Excursion with WP Access, Special Package;
  • "AM / PM" for two visits in one day.

Observatory on the 86th floor with a closed and open section; On the 102th floor - completely fenced. Like the building line itself, the entrance line has a legendary status.

As a building is used, which is located there

​​

, historically AR-Deco is determined by courage and bright interiors. Empire State Building solemnly adheres to this tradition. Lyubbie is one of the few indoor rooms in New York is defined as a historical landmark. Grand Space, access to which is carried out with the fifth Avenue, has an entrance with double doors between a pair of rotating doors.

At the top of each doorway, the bronze motive depicting one of the three "crafts or industries", which were used in building the building: electricity, stone masonry and heating.

The design elements are amazed: marble tiles with geometric ornaments, covering the walls of zigzag terrazzo, suspended ceiling of acrylic panel with fluorescent lighting. Deep respect to the technological advances of the "century of machines" is reflected in grand frescoes.

on the ceiling - the sky with planets and stars representing industrial gears and wheels (as a line of assembling mechanisms in the car). On the wall, above the reception, the aluminum profile of the building in the rays of the light emanating from the spire, which symbolizes ESB as a lighthouse of optimism and progress.

The suspended ceiling from the acrylic panel with fluorescent lamps was installed in the 1960s in order to modernize the building, then the original fresco was damaged almost without the possibility of repair. The restoration of the Art Deco's lobby began in August 2006.

Only Evergreene Architectural Arts, a painting studio from New York, was able to recreate the fresco, working on original working drawings and historical photos. For 18 months, 25 masters were manually applied 16 layers of paint, glazes on canvases (number of 75 pieces and a total area of ​​more than 15,000 square feet) from aluminum sheet and graval gold.

Inspired by original sketches, Rambusch Lighting & Decorating and Designer on Lighting Scott Watson created two multi-tiered octagonal pendants in the Art Deco style, which hang over pedestrian bridges in the corridors of the 33rd and 34th streets.

Landmarks of the building:

  1. State Grill and Bar - First Official Restaurant Empire State Building, on the 1st floor.
  2. On the 2nd floor of the building there is an exhibition dedicated to the Environmental Repair Works of 2009.
  3. On the 80th floor, the Dare to Dream exhibition illustrates the history, design and construction phases of the world's most famous skyscraper.
  4. The Empire State Building is the largest office building. It houses the headquarters of many of the world's leading companies, television and radio broadcasting stations, each of which contributes to the building, modernizing the rented space. Notable tenants include the Boy Scouts of America, the World Monuments Fund (WMF), Human Rights Watch, and the social network LinkedIn. The LinkedIn offices on the 128th floor feature a lobby covered in 133 vintage telephones. One "telephone" part is a door that opens into an eclectic bar.

From the 102nd floor, stairs lead to the 103rd floor (formerly 102), built as a mooring station for airships with a circular balcony. It is currently an access point for maintenance of the spire. By the end of 2019, it is planned to complete the construction of a new main entrance.

The Empire State Building in art

The 102-story Empire State Building has appeared in numerous films, cartoons, television shows, video games, and literature.

The image was first used in 1932; Christopher Morley described it in the book Swiss Family Manhattan, which is about a traveling Swiss family who land on a skyscraper in an airship. In 1933, he was immortalized in the classic film King Kong, starring Fay Wray as the "Kong Girl".

artist Robert Vicino.

The most memorable image of the Empire State, which has become a metaphor for love that overcomes distances and the place of the main date in life, is in the film Sleepless in Seattle (1993), inspired by "An Affair to Remember" with Carrie Grant and Deborah Kerr, 1957 romantic comedy.

The skyscraper is featured in the dystopian films Independence Day (1996) and Oblivion (2013) as a symbol of human achievement versus the destructive forces of alien invaders and Mother Nature. He appears in the superhero films The Amazing Spider-Man (2012) and Superman 2 (1980) as a hallmark of New York perseverance.

Empire State Building Conservation Status

The interior of the building, including the iconic Fifth Avenue lobby, 33rd and 34th Street corridors, escalator, stairs, elevators, and lobby and footbridges on the second floor, designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. It has been listed as a National Historic Landmark since 1986.

The skyscraper has won several design awards, including a gold medal from the Architectural League in 1931. The recently completely modernized ESB was awarded the Green Building Awards for its energy efficiency.

Interesting Facts

Since there are more than 150 businesses in the Empire State Building, it has its own zip code - 10118. There are about 40 other buildings in New York that have their own zip codes. The name comes from New York City's nickname, the Empire State.

Fact Sheet:

  1. Photographer Lewis Hine was commissioned to document the construction of the skyscraper. Hine photographed workers from a specially designed basket deployed over Fifth Avenue at an altitude of 1000ft (304.8m).
  2. Under the building about 20 m away, there is a stream. The land on which the skyscraper sits was once owned by Thompson Farm. The stream that ran through the farm can now be found in the basement of the Empire State Building, where a pumping system has been installed to pump water into the sewer system.
  3. The Empire State Building sold for $51,000,000 in 1951. The total cost of construction, including land, was $40,948,900, equivalent to about $635,021,563 today. The cost without the land was $24,718,000. It is believed that all this would have cost twice as much, but due to the Great Depression, the price dropped a lot.
  4. The Empire State Building has 73 elevators and 6,500 windows.
  5. A skyscraper's lightning rod is struck by lightning about 23 times a year.
  6. Every year there is a marathon on the 86th floor. The fastest run time of 1576 steps of flights of stairs is 9 minutes and 33 seconds. The record holder is Australian Paul Craik.
  7. The first marriage took place on the observation deck of the Empire State Building in April 1932. The couple chose, in their words, "the closest place to heaven they could find."

There have been over 30 suicide attempts in the Empire State Building. The first incident occurred during the construction of the building; the fired worker threw himself into an open elevator shaft. But the most famous incident occurred on May 1, 1947, when 23-year-old Evelyn McHane jumped from the 86th floor observation deck and fell onto the roof of a UN limousine.

Metal machines have developed around the body, which looked "vacationers, but not dead", framing his head and hands in pearl white gloves. A student photographer Robert Wiles was on the spot, who took Mchane photograph a few minutes after her death. Photo was published on May 12, 1947 in Life magazine and the death of the girl was called "the most beautiful suicide."

The image was used by Andy Warhol for the "Suicide" picture ("Fading Body") from the "Death and Catastrophe" cycle. On February 23, 1997, Ali Hassan Abu Kamal, 69-year-old Palestinian teacher, opened fire on the observation site, killing one person and wounding six, and then shot himself.

On July 28, 1945, William Smith broke the bomber B-25 US Army from the northern side of the 79th floor Empire State Building. In the morning on the day of the crash, the city was covered with dense fog. Lieutenant Colonel, who was heading to Newark, asking the weather report, somehow ended up with La Gardia airport. He was recommended to land, but he still intended to continue the way to Newark.

Trying to restore visibility, Smith sank and turned out to be among the skyscrapers of Manhattan. Continuing to circling around the buildings, he tried to avoid a collision, but he had changed good luck, and he went straight to Empière State Building. The pilot tried to dial height and turn around, but it was too late.

In the collision, the bomber has done a hole with a height of 18 feet (5.5 m) and a width of 20 feet (6 m), high-octane aircraft fuel exploded, the fire began to spread along the building, reaching 75 floors. Smith and two crew members died as another 11 people who were in the building.

Address Empire State Building

is located in the southern part of Midtaun. Accurate address: 350 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan. This is a complex class A building, which includes round-the-clock access, private entrances on the 34th and 33rd streets, concierge / security, central air conditioning, night cleaning.

How to get to Empire State Building by car, public transport

Empire State Building is located next to the Pennsylvanian Station station (Penn Staishn). You can get to it on the subway, bus or train.

Nearest metro stations:

  1. 34th Street-herald Square (Routes B, D, F, M, N, Q, R) - 4 Minutes walk to skyscraper.
  2. East 34th Street - Avenue Park, a 4-minute walk.
  3. Madison Avenue - East 32 Street, 5 minutes walk.
  4. Madison Avenue-East 37th Street, 6 minutes walk.
  5. 28th Street (routes N, Q, R), 9 minutes walk.

Railway lines near Empire State Building: Babylon, Hudson, Port Washington. Bus lines near Empire State Building: M2, M34A-SBS, QM5, SIM4C, X28.

Empire State Building is open 365 days a year from 8:00 to 2:00. The last elevator on the Opporty Platform Empire State Building, from the height of which the Panorama of New York is located, at 1:15. One of the easiest ways to visit is comfortable - buy tickets for the viewing platform in advance, you can do it online.

Registration of Articles: Lozinsky Oleg

Video about Empire State Building

True on Empire State Bilding:

https://youtu.be/atoaioseb5i