- History of Costa Rica
- Decolumbov period
- Opening Columbus
- XIX century
- XX century
- Geographical features
- Costa-Rica climate
- Natural Features of the country
- Population of Costa Rica
- Culture: Legacy of ancestors and modern
- Holidays and traditions
- Interesting facts
- Video about Costa Rica
Costa Rica is one of the smallest states on the map of Central America With the capital in the city of San Jose. The local population calls himself "Tikos" and the last 68 years live in peace with neighbors and each other.
The history of Costa Rica
Costa Rica on the world map for the first time appeared as the dependent territory of the Spanish crown. Starting like one of the poorest Spanish colonies, the country to the XXI century. turned into "Latin American Switzerland" due to the sustainable financial and banking system and the tax regime that promotes business development.
The first settlers on the territory of Costa Rica - the tribes of gatherers - appeared on these lands of approximately 12 thousand years ago. These were nomads who lived in small family groups and fascinated on the giant battleships, sloths and mastodonts.
By the time of the arrival of Europeans at least three Indian people called Costa Rica with their home. These were numerous tribes of Borukov (in the south of the Pacific coast), Guhetarov (in the center of the country) and vorubov (in the north of the Pacific coast).
Developed agriculture and handicrafts allowed to trade between tribes, cocoa beans were used as a currency. Guhetars were able to melting gold and copper.
Christopher Columbus reached the eastern coast of Costa Rica on September 18, 1502 Having met the Aboriginal in Golden Ornaments, the navigator decided that he found the terrain rich gold.Subsequent numerous expeditions led to the formation of the first Spanish colony here.
Active colonization of the population began in 30s. XVI century Peacefully tuned with respect to the invaders of the aborigines violently resisted by enslavement, creating difficulties on the development of the Spaniards of the new locality. But in the end, most of the local population died in an unequal struggle with the colonizers and brought from Europe to the infections of unknown to the Indians of disease.
In the second half of the XVI century. Europeans settled the central plateau, where they laid the capital of Cartago. Without finding gold deposits, the conquistadors rushed to the conquest of richest lands, and in the colonies settled mainly poor Spaniards. They organized small farms, the land in which were often forced to handle themselves.
Some historians among the causes of the slow development of the region indicate including a small amount of aborigine available for enslavement. Poverty and relative geographical insulation of the colony made her position almost independent.
The weakening of Spain due to the attack of Napoleon led to outbreaks of the uprisings in all Spanish colonies. In 1821, Costa Rica, following its neighbors, announced its independence.
For about two years, the country was part of the Mexican Empire, and after the decay of the latter - to the United States of Central America. In 1824, the first elected president of the country decided to postpone the capital to the new city of San Juan. The final sovereignty of Costa Rica received in 1838.
in 1854-1856. With the assistance of the United States, a sinker and an adventure crawler W. Walker with a detachment tried to conquer the country of the Caribbean. Capturing power in Nicaragua, he attacked Costa Rica in 1856, but was broken by Kostarikan troops, and then finally defeated the army of the coalition.
In the second half of the XIX century. In Costa Rica, an active gasket of the railway network was carried out. The lack of workers during construction led to the stream of black migrants with Jamaica, which settled in the east of the country.
at the end of the XIX century. The United States again attempted to strengthen its presence in this region - this time economic way. United Fruit Company has bought the land of Costa Rica, organizing bananas plantations, coffee, cocoa and other cultures on them. The influence of the company was so great that she could put pressure on the government of the state, lobbying his interests.
The first third of the XX century. It is characterized by active economic development and strengthening the impact of the United States, an increased taxation for exporters of bananas and oil was introduced, the working day is reduced to 8 hours. In 30s Creates the power of the Communist Party.
Civil War of 1948-1949, broke out due to disagreement with the results of elections for the presidential post, led to the adoption of the Constitution, in which the army was replaced by the Civil Guard. The "military" budget was aimed at the development of medicine and education, which led to an increase in total literacy, at the beginning of the XXI century. The number of competent population exceeded 95%.
the economic development of the country contributed to the accession in 1962 to the organization "Central American Common Market". Costa Rica gained access to new sales markets and increased the influx of investments in the domestic industry. In 1963-1968 Eruption of volcanoes Iraça and Arenal caused damage to agriculture and entailed serious destruction and sacrifices.
Economic growth is replaced by the crisis in the mid-70s., The cause of which began to reduce prices for the exported coffee and the rise in prices for imported petroleum products. From the beginning of the 90s The country began to actively develop tourism. In 1998, in Costa Rica, the American company Intel built a microchip plant.
by the end of the XX century. The once an agrarian country has become a state, dynamically developing ecotourism, exporting, in addition to coffee and bananas, software, microprocessors and medical equipment.
Costa Rica on the world map is located on the Central American Isthmus and borders with Panama in the south and Nicaragua in the north. The west coast goes to the Pacific Ocean, the Eastern washed by the waters of the Caribbean. The total territory of the country, including the largest of the coconut uninhabited in the Pacific Ocean, is 51.1 thousand square meters. km.
The main part of the population lives on the territory of the central plateau, which runs between the mountain ranges of cordillers. There are no less than 60 volcanoes in the country, at least 5 of them are valid (Arenal, Paras, Iraça, Rincon de la Vieha and Turrialba).
The highest point on the map of Costa Rica is the top of Cherippo - 3820 m. The highest of existing volcanoes is Iraça - 3432 m. The largest lake is arenal - located at an altitude of 600 m above sea level and is artificial, its The area is 80 sq. M. km.
Costa Rica climate
Costa Rica on the world map ranks just north of the equator. The climate is a subequatorial, however a variety of relief is the cause of the existence of several microclimate differing in precipitation.
The greatest amount falls on the east coast (more than 3000 mm per year), the dry season is very short here, and the average monthly temperature is +25 ° C - +27 ° C year-round, in May-June, the air is warm up to + 31 ° C.
Pacific coast - the most dry part of the country is a bit warmer Caribbean, the average monthly temperature is +28 ° C - +30 ° C, rising to +35 ° C in the hottest months (March, April). The dry season is more pronounced here, it lasts from December to April. In the rainy season, the sediments fall almost daily day after noon and rarely tightened.
On the central plateau climate is cooler, the average monthly temperature is +23 ° C - +25 ° C. The rainy season lasts from May to November, in January-February, precipitation practically does not fall out. In the mountains at an altitude of 2000 m and the temperature is significantly lower, negative temperatures are possible at large altitudes at night.
The natural features of the country
more than half of the territory of Costa Rica are covered with forests. In humid-tropical evergreen forests of the Caribbean coast, trees of valuable breeds grow: black, satin, rosewood - their wood is used in the manufacture of expensive furniture.
Palms of various species, ferns and orchids grow in a plurality of palm trees. At an altitude of 1.5 km. Oak forests prevail with an undergrowth of evergreen laurels.
On the Pacific Coast, rainforests are discharged in the dry season, most of the territories are occupied by savannahs here, and the slopes of the mountains are covered with pine forests. The central part of the country is almost completely mastered by a person.
On the map of Costa Rica, you can find 74 natural reserves who occupy almost a third of the country. Unique biodiversity is 4% of the varieties of world fauna.
From mammals here are found:
- monkeys (roar, cappucins, spoofy);
- Wild Cats (Puma, Jaguars, Ocelot, Jaguarundi);
- two types of sloths;
- raccoon (rods, crust, coaty);
- various types of volatile mice;
- Large and dwarf amusements;
220 species of reptiles live on the territory of the country, among which lizards (Vasiliski, Iguani), snakes (fluffs, aspids, viper, curses), turtles and two types of crocodiles. Tropical forests inhabit about 900 species of birds from small hummingbird to a huge Brazilian Yabir. Many copies of the animal world of Costa Rica are endemics.
Among the numerous natural reserves can be allocated:
- International Park of La Amistad. To be immediately in two states: Panama and Costa Rica, its area is 5,700 km2, this is the largest security area of the animal and plant world in Central America. The terrain of the reserve is not examined to the end, as in many places is covered with difficult forests.
- Cukovado National Park. It occupies an area of 425 km2, located on the Paninsula Osa, the Pacific coast. Almost fully covered with relic rain forests with rich flora and fauna. Salsipuedes Cave is located here, in which, according to legend, Francis Drake hid some of his gold.
- Tortuguero National Park. Located on the Caribbean coast and covers an area of 312 sq. km. The rainiest area in the country. It is notable for the beaches where sea turtles listed in the Red Book nest.
- Protected areas of the uninhabited islands of Cocos, Negritos, Caño and los Pajaros.
- National parks of large active volcanoes.
Costa Rica is represented on the world map as a presidential democratic republic. The constitution, adopted in 1949, provides for the division of power into executive, legislative and judicial. The head of state is elected by universal suffrage every 4 years; in the elections in 2018, the candidate of the center-left Civil Action party, Carlos Alvarado Quesada, won.
The President heads the government, appointing and removing ministers. Legislative power is represented by a unicameral National Assembly, elections for which are held simultaneously with presidential elections. The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court.
The Constitution provides for the division of the country into 7 provinces, each of which, in turn, is divided into cantons, and the latter into districts.
Population of Costa Rica
According to the census, the population of the country was 4.3 million people. Most of them are the descendants of the colonialists and mestizos (84%), the black population, mostly mulattoes, is not numerous (about 7%). An even smaller proportion falls on the Indians - about 2%. Costa Rica has a large number of migrants, mostly from Nicaragua, with little emigration.
Catholicism is officially recognized by the Constitution as the state religion, at the same time, citizens are guaranteed freedom in choosing a faith, if its postulates do not contradict the norms of morality and customs of the country. The bulk of the population is Catholics (72%), about 14% are Protestants, mainly by Lutherans, another 11% do not count themselves to any denomination.
Culture: the legacy of ancestors and modern
Costa Rica cultural traditions, originating in the Spanish past, were formed under the influence of local Indian and Africarbian customs. Here the religion is woven in everyday life, holidays are solemn and colorful, strongly love for music, dancing and corrida.
, first of all, Costa Rica is interesting to ecotourists, historical and cultural heritage monuments are few.
- The Museum of Gold of the Decolumba period, located in the center of the capital San Jose. It contains more than 2,000 jewelry and more than 20 ceramic statues made by the aborigines for the period from 500 g. To 1500. One of the most interesting exhibits is the Golden Statue of Warrior in Human Growth.
- In the capital also contains one of the best theaters of Central America - National Theater. Built at the end of the XIX century. At donations of coffee magnates, the building resembles the Paris Opera, from the inside, decorated with patterned pink marble. There are regular theatrical productions here, you can also hear the National Symphony Orchestra. [187! The initial temple built in the second half of the XVII century. Destroyed by an earthquake, the current building in the Byzantine style was rebuilt at the beginning of the XX century.
- Petrosphere - stone balls of various sizes found in several places of Costa Rica. Detected for the first time in the 30s. XX century, it is not possible to determine the exact date of origin. There is no single theory of their origin: it could be a frequent signs or symbols of stars and planets. Currently, scientists doubt that the attenuation will ever be found. There was belief that gold is stored inside Petrosphere, as a result of which many were destroyed. You can see them in various museums and in urban areas.
- The village of Indians. The Bibrice tribe lives in Puntarenas province, Cabekares inhabit the Earth of the Talamanca Nature Reserve, Guayamys, who moved in the middle of the XX century. From Panama, settled in the southern border areas, the Gathosos inhabit in the province of Alahuel. Aborigines are engaged in traditional fishery, grow coffee and cocoa, make for sale various craft products (national costumes, pottery).
Culinary traditions of Costa Rica are similar to the national cuisines of neighboring Latin American countries. The basis of many dishes are rice, beans, fish, beef, poultry and fresh fruits and vegetables that grow in large quantities.
The specificity of Costa Rican cuisine lies in the moderate use of spices in the cooking process, which is offset by various sauces served separately.
In the daily menu of a Costa Rican there are:
- Casado - a dish of rice and black beans, which are not mixed here, with the addition of meat and vegetables (fresh, fried and pickled). There is also an option for vegetarians.
- Ceviche - freshly caught fish, cut into small pieces, marinated in lime juice for about a quarter of an hour. Served with red onion rings, hot peppers and a garnish of sweet potato or roasted corn.
- Gallo pinto - a mixture of rice and beans seasoned with onion, garlic and various spices.
- Olla de carne - thick beef soup with spices and various vegetables, including bananas.
Corn is widely used in the country, from the flour of which all kinds of dishes are prepared. These are the usual tortillas, pancakes with various fillings, puff pastries and bread.
Costa Rican coffee is recognized as one of the best in the world, this drink - black or with milk - is a favorite among tourists and locals.
Holidays and traditions
Costa Rica has a strong traditional patriarchal attitude towards the family, which is the main value in everyone's life. Family traditions are honored here, relatives - close and not so close - get together on holidays, children do not tend to leave their parental home.
A large number of holidays in the country are of a religious nature, besides, in addition to national ones, almost every locality has its own celebrations.
Among the main public holidays are:
- Catholic Christmas (December 25). A celebration for which it is customary to gather with a large family, with cypress decoration and numerous gifts. Celebrations last until the New Year, during this week almost all activity in the state stops. The traditional dish of the Christmas week - tamales (rolls of banana leaves with various fillings) - is prepared in each family throughout December, so that after the holiday they can be exchanged with neighbors. Many people prefer to spend the week after Christmas on the beach, where they celebrate the New Year.
- Easter (floating date). On Holy Week, almost the entire population of the country has holidays, believers go to church services, and mummers arrange processions in the streets.
- Day of the Angelic Virgin - the patroness of Costa Rica (August 2). On this day, the believing population goes to bow to the statuette of the Virgin, located in the former capital of the country - the city of Cartago. The procession of pilgrims begins a few days before the holiday and is a very colorful sight.
- Among the significant holidays not related to religion, it is worth mentioning Independence Day of the Republic of Costa Rica (September 15). It is celebrated with a festive parade, which is attended mainly by students of schools and colleges, dressed in national clothes.
- Costa Rica has been ranked as the world's happiest country twice (in 2009 and 2012).
- It is the only country in the world where the maintenance of a regular army is prohibited by the Constitution.
- In Spanish, the name of the state means “rich coast”, as Columbus dubbed these lands, considering that they are rich in gold.
- The film Jurassic Park was filmed on the desert island of Cocos.
Costa Rica in the modern world is an actively developing country with a stable economic and political situation, and is one of the most developed countries on the map of Central America. Convenient geographical position, mild climate and wide biodiversity make it attractive for visiting and living.
Article design: Mila Fridan
Video about Costa Rica
Overview of Costa Rica in the television program Eagle and Tails: