In the Crimea among numerous attractions there are cave cities - so-called fortresses in the rocks, the former trade and cultural centers in the Middle Ages. Mangup-Kale is one of the most studied, well-preserved and popular cave cities, the former capital of the Principality of Feodoro. It is located in the Bakhchisaray district on the top of the Baba-Doug's Mountain.
Historical facts about the city
The top of Mangup rises to 583 m above sea level, towering over the surrounding valleys of Ai-Todorskaya, Jan-der and Karalese.
Mangup always attracted the attention of people with its inaccessibility: from 3-sides of the plateau limit steep cliffs, crouched by the forest, in the north slope cut through 3 deep gorges.
These gorges are divided by the territory of the Plateau on Camla-Burun (Pine), Chufut-Burun (Jewish), Gelli Burun (East, or Allensky) And Teschkli-Burun (holey). Attracted people and the fact that there are springs on the plateau - constant water sources.
Aven a thousand years before our era, Mangup Calais was settled. For centuries, almost all tribes that were in the Crimea left the trail on Mangup: after the brass, Scythian Sarmatians lived on the mountain, in the III-IV century. n. e. They were changed by Alans and Goths.
Mangup Kale is a cave city, which in V c. N. E. Attracted the attention of the Byzantines, who put the fortress on top. The city, which received the name of Doros (or adult), becomes the center of the Gothic Diocese and the capital of the Crimean Gothia. In the VII century The mountain fortress capture the Khazars and place their garrison.
The flourishing of Mangup came to the Middle Ages during the existence of the Christian Principality of Feodoro, who lived in the Byzantine traditions and customs. The first chapter of Feodoro in the 1140s was the Feodor Gavras, a leaving from the ancient genus of the rulers of Trapezund.
The rich and powerful principality was well known in Europe: the wife of the Moldovan Moldovan gentleman Stefan Great became the Mangupus Princess Maria Paleologist, and Prince Ivan III was wobbled for the son of the Princess Sophia.
by the XV century. The Principality of Feodoro owned by the western part of the Crimea and the coast from Alushta to Balaklava. Inhabited the state of the Greeks, Armenians, Alans, Crimean Goths, Karai, people from Byzantium.
Theodorites grown gardens and gardens, made wine from local grapes. Residents were engaged in pottery, blacksmith and weaving craft, built, traded from Europe and Asia. According to the preserved documents, about 200 thousand inhabitants numbered in the principality.
In addition to the capital of Doros, located on the Mangup Plateau, the state was part of the state:
- Kamita Fortress (Inkerman District);
- Port of Avlite (on the r. Black near Sevastopol);
- 20-30 feudal estates;
- about 100 villages;
- Almost 10 monasteries.
In 1475, the Omman Turks captured almost the entire Byzantine Empire. For the approval of the power of the Ottoman Empire, the army was sent to the Crimea, who had conquered Greek and Genoese cities during the month. But mangup could not be captured.
The siege of the fortress lasted 5 months, while the Feodorites destroyed the Jancharian corps - the only elite of the Ottoman army, which existed during that period. Only at the end of 1475 the Turks were able to enter the fortress. The houses were destroyed, the inhabitants were killed or enclosed into slavery.
Evaluating the location of Mangup, the Turks restored the fortress and posted a military garrison in it. From the land of the former principality was created by Mangupsky Kadyelk. It consisted of 3 cities (Mangup, Balaclava and Inkerman) and almost 50 villages. The Ottoman period lasted until 1774
with the transition of the Crimea under the power of the Russian Empire, the Turks left the fortress. The latter in 1790, Mangup left Karaimi. The city on the top of the mountain became uninhabited.
Mangup-kale historians began to study since 1853, having made many scientific discoveries over the years and turning the plateau in the open-air museum. The largest cave city in the Crimea takes about 90 hectares. On the territory near historical objects installed stands with information.
Inspection begins from Cape Chufut-Burun, where the box is located. Hiking lift takes 1-1.5 hours. On well-groomed path with equipped places of recreation. The first object is a fortress wall, it was built in 1503. Ottoman Turks, overlapping access to the plateau. The overall length of the fortress wall is 1.5 km.
The Karaite necropolis begins behind the wall, the burial on which XV-XVIII is dated. About 1000 tombstones are preserved on the square of about 3 hectares, some of them are equipped with epitaphs in Hebrew.
The trail displays to the inner defensive wall, near which the spring flows from the Earth. He got a female name (male is located in the cappou-derere ravine). Immediately behind the wall and monumental sentier tower are the ruins of the Karai Temple of Kenassa. The building was built in the XV century. During the prince's heyday.
When the Karaims left the mangup, they disassembled a prayer house and used stones to fold the temple on Chufut-Kale. Ritual ablutions believers made a cave in the Kenassa located near Kenassa, in the depth of which the stone staircase leads. The quarter began from Kenassa, where 250-900 caraims lived at different times.
Not far from Kenassa, archaeologists discovered the Christian Basilica of the VI-XVI century, from which a bright mosaic floor was preserved. Scientists found that during the construction of the main church of the city, thesis was used bridge marble, and the walls were covered with frescoes. The excavations of the Big Basilica confirmed that Mangup was the spiritual center of the Gothic Diocese.
East Basilica are the ruins of the Princely Palace, built at the beginning of the XV century. Tourists can only see the foundation of the princely residence, because Separating the Feodoro Turkis-Ottomans destroyed the palace complex.
Historians managed to find out that it was a large building with a gallery, decorated with marble columns, a parade hall, a refectory and an inland yard. The palace complex was performed and defensive tasks: from the top floor of the sentier tower, adjacent territories were examined.
The ruins of 100 m from the palace is what remained from the Church of St. Konstantin and Elena. Another name is the Church of the Virgin, due to the fact that in the XVIII century. On the walls of the temple, a fresco was preserved depicting the Mother of God.
In the south side of the plateau on the breakfast installed a wooden cross. To the left of him is a staircase, it leads down to the caves in which there is a valid male Annunciation Monastery. The monastery began his story with the VI century. In one of the caves there is a Bogoyavlensky source, to the other - ancient murals.
After examining the monastery, tourists are recommended to return to the plateau and reach the southern cliff mangup kale, where the man-made caves are preserved. They served as a storage area of products and shelter, there are also stone pits - cockarapans, or wine-centers. This is the highest part of the plateau, scenic views opens from it.
Near the cave complex is the pearl of the museum - the Citadel, built in the XIV century. 2 Kurtins are preserved with a height of 30 and 53 m and a 3-storey tower with braces and embrasures. The fortress occupied over 1 hectare, in some places it is still seen in the elegant design - the outlet and the ornaments cut out of the stone decorate windows and doors. [75!
The Stone Arch of the Citadel is the most photographed object Mangup, through it the passage leads to a siege well at Cape Teschkli-Burun. The well depth 23 m is cut in the stone array and reaches the aquifer.
Next to the well, the foundation of the octagonal temple was preserved - it received its name in the form of an external circuit. Temple XV century It is a riddle for scientists trying to explain its unusual 8-final form.
The Teschkli-Burun is half of the artificial cave discovered on Mangup Kale. Some caves were cellars of residential buildings, others act as the chambers. The complex forms 2 tiers. From Ambrazur of the caasemates opens a good overview of the surroundings and an ancient wheeled road leading from the valley to the plateau.
A stone road with deep ruts envelopes Teschkli-Burun and derives to the city gate.
, on the tip of the leakage cape, once stood the watchtower from which on the observation site at the top Survived deepening under the foci, and at the bottom - a large cave with window openings. The stone staircase leads to the most famous mangup-kale cave - drum-koba. The column in the center supports the high arch of the spacious hall.
It is believed that by hitting the stone column, you can hear the sound of the drum. Scientists suggest that the lower caves of the watchtower served during the times of Turkish rule of imprisonment, it was here that the Russian ambassador of Athanasius Nagoya and Catholic missionaries were in captivity.
MANGUP-KALA MATERS form a palm with 4 fingers, open to the sky - such a form on a par with ancient history, made a plateau attractive for psychics, contactors and those who are looking for power places. A lot of old legends have been preserved on Mangup.
One of the first travelers, Evlia Chelebi, having visited the Crimea in 1641, recorded the story of the ancient Flood in his book, flooding the territory of Eastern Europe. Only Plateau Mangup was towering over the water. As evidence, local residents showed the burdens that preserved on the sheer cliffs of iron rings, which would see for sailing boats.
Mangup Kale is a cave city that attracts adventure crawls. Numerous caves give birth to legends and tales of treasures, chests with gold and silver. In one of the legends it is said about the young man who has long copied money for a wedding with his beloved. On a festive day, he went for jewels and gold hidden in the cave, but did not return.
the bride went to search for the groom - and also disappeared. Therefore, in the caves, sometimes you can hear the ringing of coins and decorations. The legends of the treasures were attracted not only to tourists: in the XVIII-XIX century. Greeks from Balaclava, seeking to find hidden chests, managed to disassemble one of the fortress towers on the stones.
There is also a legend about the Towers of the Mangup Fortress. It is believed that the highest fortress tower built in ancient times the evil sorcerer. He knew all the secrets in the world and lived half a thousand years. While the sorcerer was alive, no one could conquer Mangup. But as soon as the wizard died, the tower collapsed, and the aliens captured the fortress.
One of the legend's loved ones and tourists is devoted to the Mangupian boy. It is said that in the foggy evenings on the plateau you can hear children's crying, and a translucent children's figure can be seen in the dark. According to legend, this is the last prince of Feodoro, killed by conquerors. The ghost can help and withdraw the lost tourist towards people, and can bring to a dangerous cliff.
With mangupous springs also bind unusual stories. Some believe that swimming in the women's source will bring health and fertility. At one time, pregnant women came to Mangup, who wanted to give birth in nature in Spring water.
In winter, the air temperature in Bakhchisarai district is from +5 to -70, strong winds are often blowing. The air on the elevation by 2-3 degrees is colder than in the valley. In the period from January to March, snow can fall out, but the steady snow cover is rare.
Spring occurs in April, the most favorable time for visiting the cave city - April-May. In the summer, the plateau is very hot, the feelings of heat are strengthened due to the lack of greens. The air temperature reaches + 22-250in June and to + 35-400in August. Since October, a steady cooling begins in the area, it's often raining since November.
It is possible to rise on mangup-kale throughout the year, however, in bad weather (rain, fog, snowfall) such a journey will become dangerous - ground paths and stone stairs are becoming slippery.
Rules and Tips for visiting
Mangup Calais - a cave city, which refers to the category of light routes and is suitable for people with medium physical training and children over 6 years old. Lifting opportunities for people with disabilities on Mangup are not yet provided. Traveling around the cave city is more convenient in sports shoes.
The average duration of the route is 5-6 km. The rise takes 1.5 hours, the descent of 0.4-1 hours. Reduced lifting time can be used if you take advantage of driving on a jeep or quad bike. Tourists need to remember that in the autumn-winter period, the light day is small, and the protracted descent on mountain paths is difficult, so the sights should be started early.
Inspection of attractions on the plateau takes at least 3-4 hours, there are no shops and cafes on the plateau, tourists should take with them a stock of water and products. In the summer you should wear hats and use sunscreen.
Lake at the Fortress
, Manguporship Lake (it is also called the maiden) at the foot of the mountain has an artificial origin. In the 1980s, construction work began - it was planned to build a recreation base.
Builders found traces of residential buildings and basilics in the pitchers, but the archaeologists did not have time to study the found - Kotlovan was quickly filled with water from the nearby Spring. Attentive tourists in summer days can see the stone ruins at the bottom of the lake.
The lake has a small size - 120 m in length and 250 m wide, but it does not prevent him from being extremely popular with holidaymakers. Fame to the water adds the fact that in 1990 he became the place of filming of the movie "Witch Dungeon".
Lake the shores are now built up with arbors, in which the kebab can be prepared and relax. Nearby Cafe "Mangup-Kale", "Kervan-Sarai", "A Aisha", "Gulnara", "Khoja Sala" and others. There are hotels, recreation center.
Summer on the lake will offer catamaran, boat and fishing tackle, you can swim in the reservoir for free. From the farm "Izachak" (located in the village of Zalese) to the lake are organized by rides on donkeys.
Where is located, how to get
Mangup Calea - the cave city, located in Bakhchisarai district, is 65 km from Simferopol and 45 km from Sevastopol. Place coordinates 44 ° 35'34 "s. sh., 33 ° 48'03 "in. D. It is more convenient to go to mangup by car.
on the road 35K-010 between p. Ternovka and the presenter there is a small town of Hodge Sala, it is this village with a population of 53 inhabitants is a convenient starting point for studying the cave city. Near the lake there is free parking for cars, but you can drive on the street. Clalebi to the end of the village.
By car you can climb almost to the top of Mangup: from the side of Sevastopol 1.5 km from Ternovka, the dirt road goes to the right, moving along it, rise to the plateau. From the side of Simferopol, a similar primer is available through with. Novoulyanovka.
How to take a public transport:
- from the Simferopol Autosterement "Western" on p. Native Bakhchisarai district twice a day the bus goes through with. Khoja Sala.
- Arriving in Bakhchisarai by train, near the railway station, you can take a bus to the village. Native, which makes a stop, going to the final destination from Simferopol.
- From Sevastopol, you can first go by train to Bakhchisaray, then use the bus to Rodnoye. Another option is to take bus number 40 to the village. Ternovka, then walk 4 km to Mangup.
It is more convenient for vacationers to take advantage of organized tours to Mangup-Kala offered by travel agencies. Such an excursion lasts 4-11 hours and can be combined with a visit to other cave cities and attractions.
Cost of visiting
Mangup-Kale belongs to the objects of the Bakhchisaray Museum-Reserve. There is a ticket office on the road to the top, which is open from 9 am to 5 pm all days except Monday and Tuesday.
Ticket prices are shown in the table:
|Category of visitors||Ticket price, rub.|
|Children under 16 years old||Free of charge|
|Children from 16 to 18 years old, pensioners||50|
The application can be left on the website of the museum or by phone. +7 (978) 139-02-94. For groups of up to 15 people, the price of the tour will be 1500 rubles. In bad weather, ticket offices are closed and tours are not offered.
Local residents organize trips to Mangup by jeeps, quad bikes, the cost of the trip starts from 5000 rubles. Individual excursions to the cave city are carried out from any Crimean city: from Evpatoria and Sevastopol, prices for a trip by car cost from 6,000 rubles, from Yalta - from 7,500 rubles. Bus tours cost 1000-1500 rubles. for a person.
Mangup-Kale is a unique cave city. His visit does not leave anyone indifferent. Beautiful views that open from the plateau, ancient buildings created by the hands of those who lived thousands of years ago, a history filled with battles - all this makes an indelible impression.
Video about the cave city
Mangup Kale — Secrets of the Cave city:.