Air North Lake in Australia. Where is it on the map, photos, facts

The continent of Australia has a reputation as one of the most arid and exotic on the planet. On its territory there are several dozens of unique geological objects that attract travelers like a "magnet". Australia is home to one of the largest salt lakes in the world called Air North, which has its own unique ecosystem.

If you turn on your imagination and look at the reservoir in a section, it will look like a huge gigantic sandwich, in which the bottom layer is a rocky base with a dense layer of soil, above it there is a salty water layer and above it is sand.

Location where it is

Eyre Nord Lake (new name Kati Tanda Lake Air) is located on the northern side of the South Australian region, in a sparsely populated area, south of the equator. It occupies a rather large area of ​​desert terrain, where the surface is mostly grassy and flat.

The main attraction of the region consists of 2 reservoirs Air South (South) and Air North (North), which are interconnected by a strait called Goyder.

The unique reservoir is located at a distance of 200 km from the city of Adelaide, in the middle of a deep depression surrounded by an endless and lifeless desert. Geographical coordinates of the lake: 28°22′00″ N and 137°22′00″ E

Australia is the only country in the Southern Hemisphere that completely occupies the entire mainland of the same name and several other islands adjacent to it.

It is located at a distance of 15 thousand km from Russia and the best way to get to it is to fly by plane. The flight will be quite expensive, but it will take much less time than a trip on a sea liner.

There are no direct flights from Russia to Australia, so you will have to take tickets with transfers in countries or cities:

  • Japan;
  • UAE, Dubai;
  • Melbourne;
  • Sydney;
  • Perth;
  • Brisbane;
  • Hong Kong;
  • Cairns;
  • Darwin;
  • Seoul;
  • Shanghai;
  • Bangkok;
  • Vienna;
  • London;
  • Berlin.

Within the country, you can travel by domestic aviation. Also, from one large settlement to another you can get by rail or car - taxi.

Historical facts

Lake Eyre in Australia has a reputation as the most mysterious and at the same time creepy place in the country. It was formed as a result of ash processes after tectonic shifts occurred in the south of the state at the end of the Pleistocene epoch.

The scenery around the lake resembles scenes from Martian thrillers. The attraction, which is associated with frames from a fantasy film about a desert planet, stretches for many desert kilometers, in some parts it is covered with clay soil and surrounded by scorching hot air.

The reservoir got its name in honor of the famous explorer from England, E. J. Eyre, who discovered this unique reservoir back in 1840. The scientist, who visited in the middle of the 19th century, collected the richest card index of the nature of Australia, as well as New Zealand.

In the winter of 2012, the reservoir was renamed Kati Thanda.

Characteristics

The reservoir is drainless and regularly dries up. The bottom of the lake is covered with a thick layer of salt, which gradually dissolves after the next portion of water arrives. During drying, the salt will precipitate again and form a thick layer.

Area, depth, extent, bottom relief

The reservoir has a total length of the southern and northern parts, with dimensions of 144 km * 65 km and 65 km * 25 km. Salt deposits in the deepest zones can reach 50 cm. The place, which is considered the driest in Australia, is 15 m below sea level and covers the territory of almost 4 states.

The salt layer around the lake can reach 4 m, it has a highly crumbly structure and therefore does not withstand heavy loads. Because of this, traveling alone without an experienced guide is not recommended.

In the driest period, very little liquid remains in the reservoir. It usually remains in small pits formed on the salty dried lake bed. In total, about 2 hundred lakes can be counted at this time.

On the rainy season in Australia towards the lake flows water from Queensland, the reservoir reservoir depends on the number of brought water. This factor is decisive how deep will the reservoir at the moment. Sometimes there are small size and medium floods on the lake, which are provoked by dropped rains.

The water flow from the waste river goes to the northern part of Lake Air, then through the Goydera Channel it flows to the southern side of the natural attractions.

The average annual precipitation may be 100-150 mm. The greatest possible depth of the reservoir is located in the bay called Madigan and the Bay of Lelth. In the middle part of the reservoir, the depth is kept at about 10 m.

According to existing statistics, the reservoir rises to 1.5 m around 1 time in 4 years. Marks of 4 m depths of the lake can reach 1 time in 10 years. The maximum filling of the lake bowl occurs a couple of times in a century.

The largest percentage of water enters the lake from the Warbiton River, the largest flood here was observed in 1974. At that time, the bottom of the lake reached the depth of 6 m.

the largest level Water in the lake was observed in the years:

  • 1886;
  • 1889;
  • 1916;
  • 1950;
  • 1955;
  • 1974;
  • 1999

in 1984 and 1989, the lake pool was filled to 4 m. Despite In 2007, when the wet weather stood almost 6 weeks, a small amount of precipitation fell in the reservoir.

Characteristics and data collected during observations:

EYR Square in NorthernMaximum 8,430 kV. KM
EYR Square in the southern partMaximum 1,260 square meters. KM
The total area of ​​the catchment1 140 thousand square meters. km, which is 1/6 of the territory of all Australia
The length of the Hyder stream, connecting the lake15 km

The salinity and composition of the water

in the AIR water reservoir in its composition is very salted water. It can have a pinkish color formed by the delight of beta-carotine pigment, which is provoked by a large amount of grained algae called Dunaliella Salina.

The relationship with the oceans

The reservoir of the air-North is filled with water in the summer months from robusts and watercourses with non-permanent flow. In the wet months of the year, the lake can reach the area of ​​15 thousand square meters. KM and depths are almost 20 meters. On a dry time, the lake begins to disperse, turning into Solonchak.

The rains in this part of Australia the phenomenon is extremely rare, therefore even the main nourishing lake of the river called Diamantina sometimes cannot feed the lake. Time Flood usually comes in the summer when water in the reservoir runs through the temporary channel.

Over the past 1.5 hundred years of observations of the reservoir, it was maximally filled with water only 3 times, its area then amounted to 9,500 square meters. km.

Climate, water temperature

in Australia, near Lake Air North, desert tropical climate, prone to floods. The continent is characterized by frequent droughts and powerful dust storms, which are caused by the influence of oceans and the West Australian flow.

The average temperature in January on the ground is + 35 ° C, the temperature in July is from 15 ° C to 20 ° C. The total average annual amounts of precipitation 125 mm, relative air humidity of 40%.

Flora and fauna

Lake Air in Australia and the entire ecological system of the region is strictly maintained by the state. The reservoir is part of the National Park Lake Air.

The flat coast of the river, on which there are many sand dunes, rowed the feed grass, which is used for livestock. Also, they grow eucalyptus and large overgrown swans. As a trees, the most common Australian Acacia, Red Malylli and a tree called Lanswood.

The most numerous animal world of the region - birds that appear here at the moment of flood. At this time, in the reservoir, the frogs are sicked and lives a lot of fish, also a large amount of algae is growing here. At the time of drought, about from May to November, the percentage of salinity begins to increase, so all living organisms are gradually dying and the reservoir becomes dead.

A gradually formed solonchak after drying forms a perfectly smooth surface and in the middle of the last century, a world speed record was installed here. Racer Donald Cambell developed the speed on a dried lake in 649 km per hour.

Then, from December to April, the reservoir is again filled with water and is reborn to life.

The most exciting action on Air is the arrival of pelicans. It is not clear from where, but the birds feel the rise of the water level and arrive for many thousands of kilometers to continue offspring. According to observations from 1898 to 1990, almost 80% of all featured Australian population flew here, which amounted to almost 200 thousand individuals.

Pelicans on Lake Air North in Australia

Some of them flew to Ayr from Papua New Guinea. Australian Pelican is the largest flying bird of the country. It is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as a bird with the longest beak relative to its body length - from 40-50 cm. The size of an adult bird can reach 180 cm with a wingspan of up to 3.5 m. A bird can eat about 9 kg.

In the vicinity of the lake there are animals:

  • long-haired rats and bilbies;
  • skink lizards and marsupial kovari.

Birds that fly here are:

  • striped stilt and gull;
  • cormorant and duck.

Environment

The phantom lake is a wetland of national importance in Australia. The country is included in the list of continents with a rather specific ecological situation.

Active human intervention in the life of the green continent has a devastating effect on the flora and fauna of the mainland country. The continent is rich in resources and precious metals, which are a significant support for the country's economy.

During the extraction of minerals, the earth is depleted and there is a strong destruction of the soil during excavation. Natural forest and water losses can be replenished if their consumption does not exceed all permissible measures.

Also, in Australia there is a large shortage of fresh water, quickly wasted due to the active life of people.

General information and characteristics of the area:

Lake Eyre in Australia is a natural monument in which water evaporates at a catastrophic rate.

Geographical characteristics of the area:

​​
Belonging to the political and administrative unit of the stateNorth side in the state of South Australia
LocationIn Central Australia, in the Southern State
Distance from the coast of the Indian Ocean7 hundred km
Nearest town with a population (last census in 2011) - 6 peopleName William Creek
Local languages ​​spokenEnglish and Arabana
CurrencyAustralian dollar

How it is used

Recently, the structure of the water in Air North has changed a bit. After a recent big flood, it has become very desalinated, thanks to which freshwater creatures live in it. These include the Australian nematalose, which belongs to the golden perch species and currently lives in the reservoir basin. Changing the properties of water made it possible to dwell in a reservoir by some types of solid heads.

Recreational resources

Lake Air in Australia is the oldest on Earth. The main reason why tourists come here from various parts of the world - snow-white landscapes of dry lakes, which are opening from the coast of Halling Bay.

Entertainment and recreation

On the coast of the lake in the flood, the yacht club works under the name "Lake Eyre". During the period of filling the lake with water in the afternoon on the lake there comes the moment of the lull when the surface of the reservoir is surprisingly smooth and it seems that the boundaries between water and air does not exist. After the last regatta, the teamsman of the yacht club described this phenomenon with the words: "The feeling was created that the yacht was moving across the sky."

Also, tourists and inspection of attractions from Avia Flight are considered particularly attractive. Tourist companies located there offer visitors a sightseeing tour from the helicopter.

often the lake dries up and turns into Solonchak

Interesting and in demand is the proposal to travel to the lake on foot. Since such a journey is considered risky, the organizers insist on the presence of an experienced guide.

Attractions

, there are no human housing directly near the reservoir, there is only a small village of William Creek, where the aborigine animals live. Only they are solved to live near the Holy Lake, considering it the most important part of their spirituality.

Local residents are accustomed to the extreme climate of the coastal zone and work on the territory of a large livestock farm. Despite periodic drought, they are very successfully engaged in animal husbandry. The main article of their income living here the aborigines consider tourism.

In the settlement, 2 hotels are open, there is campsite and cafes. That's all that could remain so far. Other settlements in antiquity that flourished here were destroyed by time.

Planning a trip to Air-North worth calling on the road to the village of Udedatta and visit the Simpson desert. Looking sand dunes are from the north side of the reservoir. If you move towards the east from the lake, the plain and enough sharp stones will begin to interfere with the locality.

Desert Simpson, Australia

From the south side of the picturesque lake, you can find small salted lakes, which are interstitial in protected places and dry salt marshes.

It may be interesting to visit the Kati-Tanda National Park, which, in addition to Lake Eyre, includes:

  • Diamantina Park;
  • Halligan Bay;
  • the tops of the Flinders Ridge.

It is also worth looking at the ruins of the huts of the first settlers and the Aboriginal reservations.

Interesting facts

Despite the lifelessness, barrenness and aridity, the region attracts the attention of people from all over the world.

There are several interesting facts related to the lake:

  • Archaeologists often visit Australia and in particular the vicinity of Lake Eyre. This is due to the fact that a huge number of fossils are found around it. After a thorough study of the ancient remains, microbiologists postulated that the conditions of life in the lake are very similar to those on Mars.
  • Ancient fossils have been repeatedly found on the shore of the lake, which is proof that the reservoir existed even in the era of dinosaurs. In the water area, unique evidence of the life of the fauna of the Cretaceous period was often observed.
  • Over the past 160 years, Lake Eyre has only filled with water to its maximum level 3 times, the highest level was recorded in 1974 at about 6 m.
  • The lake is overgrown with legends, locals say that it is inhabited by a strange creature that feeds on visiting tourists.
  • On the southwest side of the lake are colored hills, which are formed from weathered clay, combined with deposits of iron oxide, bright red and deep yellow.

In ancient times, a unique salt water lake called Eyre North had sacred status. At present, it is a unique natural area that attracts foreign visitors to Australia. Fascinating are frightening landscapes at the moment of complete drying of the reservoir, which resemble a lifeless planet from a science fiction film.

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